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Nanoelectronics engineering

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Spintronics is a research area trying to take profit from the spin of the electrons as a mean to obtain, transmit and process information. The spin of the electrons is a degree of freedom that is not explored by conventional electronics rely only on the electrical charge to drive electronic circuits. Spintronics use magnetic materials patterned at the nano-scale to produce spin polatized currents which drive a new class of beyond CMOS components which include magnetic field sensors, non-volatile memories and RF devices.


Project Time Frame: Apr 2017 to Jan 2020
MAGLINE: Desenvolvimento e Validação Industrial do Processo de Fabricação de Sensores TMR
The latest generation of sensors (TMR) has major advantages over previous (Hall and GMR), and there is a market with sustained growth for application of these sensors. However the lack of industrial production capacity prevents its adoption in large scale commercial applications, although it is possible to acquire them commercially those marketed generic sensors are not optimized for any particular application. There is a clear opportunity to capture this market, and provide the market a large-scale production solution TMR sensors optimized and custom-made for different applications.

Project Time Frame: Nov 2017 to Sep 2020
The project embodies a comprehensive response towards the development and implementation of new production systems, embedding advanced production technologies that will equip the manufacturing industry to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 4th industrial revolution.

Project Time Frame: Nov 2017 to Sep 2020
INFANTE is a development and demonstration project for an in-orbit microsatellite, to be launched in 2020. This is the precursor of a constellation for Earth observation and communication with the focus on maritime applications.
INFANTE will be the first satellite developed by the Portuguese Industry, articulated in a national consortium led by TEKEVER group, that includes 9 companies with references in the space sector, as Active Space Technologies, Omnidea, Active Aerogels, GMV, HPS and Spinworks; and 10 internationally recognized R&D Centers in their areas of competence, such as CEIIA; FEUP, ISQ, FCT-UNL, INL, IPN, IPTomar, ISR Lisbon, IT Aveiro, and UBI.

Project Time Frame: Jan 2013 to Sep 2016
The broader objective is to bring the device level knowledge acquired in the past years by the partners towards systems as a first crucial step towards industrialization, warranting the leading position not only of European research but also of European industry in microwave spintronics.

SPINICUR webpage
Project Time Frame: Oct. 2012- Mar. 2016
SPINICUR (from spin currents) is a training network of European experts dedicated to providing state-of-the-art education and training for early stage and experienced researchers. We have concentrated on an aspect of spintronics – pure spin currents – and specific technical goals in order to secure a very high level of industrial involvement and strong network connectivity through a sharp focus.

SpinCal webpage
Project Time Frame: Jul. 2013 – Jun. 2016
SpinCal stands for Spintronics and spin-caloritronics in magnetic nanosystems, a joint research project (JRP) funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The aim of the project is to enable fundamental understanding of new effects emerging in the field of spintronics and spin-caloritronics in magnetic nanosystems. This goal was achieved by developing a new measurement infrastructure and a best practice guide for spin-caloritronic material measurements, providing a road map towards future standardisation of spintronic and spin-caloritronic measurements, materials and devices.

Project Time Frame: 2012-2015
Towards hybrid integrated heterogeneous technology devices.

Project Time Frame: Jul. 2012- Jun. 2014
Advanced MRAM Structures using Perpendicular Magnetization Materials for Spin Transfer Writing.


  • 2018

    Tarequzzaman, M; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Borme, J; Martins, L; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Broadband voltage rectifier induced by linear bias dependence in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 112 (25), pp. 252401, 2018, (arXiv: 1804.04104).

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Böhnert, T; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junction thermocouple for thermoelectric power harvesting Journal Article

    Physics Letters A, 2018, ISSN: 0375-9601.

    Links | BibTeX

    Merazzo, K J; Costa, T; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Zander, M; Türr, M; Becker, T; Freitas, P P; Cardoso, S

    Reading magnetic ink patterns with magnetoresistive sensors Journal Article

    AIP Advances, 8 (5), pp. 056633, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Tarequzzaman, M; Böhnert, T; Decker, M; Costa, J D; Borme, J; Lacoste, B; Paz, E; Jenkins, A S; Serrano-Guisan, S; Back, C H; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic oscillations Excited by Concurrent Spin Injection from a Tunneling Current and a Spin Hall Current Online

    2018, visited: 10.04.2018, (arXiv: 1802.02224).

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Tarequzzaman, M; Bohnert, T; Jenkins, A S; Borme, J; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Influence of MgO Tunnel Barrier Thickness on the Output Power of Three-Terminal Spin Hall Nano-Oscillators Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, pp. 1–4, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2017

    Silva, Ana V; Ferreira, Ricardo; Paz, Elvira; Leitao, Diana C; Devolder, Thibaut; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

    Thermal FMR Spectral Characterization of Very Low RA In-Plane MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 53 (11), pp. 1–5, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Vidal, Enrique García; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez; Arias, Sergio Iván Ravelo; Moreno, Jaime Sánchez; Cardoso, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo

    Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor Journal Article

    Materials, 10 (10), pp. 1134, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Costa, J D; Serrano-Guisan, S; Lacoste, B; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Tarequzzaman, M; Borme, J; Deepak, F L; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    High power and low critical current density spin transfer torque nano-oscillators using MgO barriers with intermediate thickness Journal Article

    Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Böhnert, T; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E; Lacoste, B; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junctions with integrated thermometers for magnetothermopower measurements Journal Article

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 29 (18), pp. 185303, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Kuepferling, M; Garcia-Sanchez, F; Boehnert, T; Ferreira, R; Dutra, R; Sommer, R L; Pasquale, M

    Influence of thermal gradients on the vortex dynamics in CoFeB MTJs Inproceedings

    2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG), pp. 1-1, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Böhnert, Tim ; Dutra, Roberta ; Sommer, Rubem L; Paz, Elvira ; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago ; Ferreira, Ricardo ; Freitas, Paulo P

    Influence of the thermal interface resistance on the thermovoltage of a magnetic tunnel junction Journal Article

    Physical Review B, 95 , pp. 104441, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Martins, L; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Optimization of the buffer surface of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions by ion beam milling Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 424 , pp. 58 - 62, 2017, ISSN: 0169-4332, (7th International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials, 2nd International Conference on Graphene Technology, 1st International Conference on Spintronics Materials).

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Yang, H F; Hu, X K; Liebing, N; Böhnert, T; Costa, J D; Tarequzzaman, M; Ferreira, R; Sievers, S; Bieler, M; Schumacher, H W

    Electrical measurement of absolute temperature and temperature transients in a buried nanostructure under ultrafast optical heating Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 110 (23), pp. 232403, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2016

    Huisman, TJ; Mikhaylovskiy, RV; Costa, JD; Freimuth, F; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Freitas, PP; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Rasing, Th; Kimel, T

    Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures Journal Article

    Nature Nanotechnology, 11 , pp. 455, 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Knudde, S; Farinha, G; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    AlOx barrier growth in magnetic tunnel junctions for sensor applications Journal Article

    Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 412 , pp. 181-184, 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Romera, M; Talatchian, P; Lebrun, R; Merazzo, K J; Bortolotti, P; Vila, L; Costa, J D; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P; Cyrille, M C; Ebels, U; Cros, V; Grollier, J

    Enhancing the injection locking range of spin torque oscillators through mutual coupling Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 109 (25), 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Linearization of Magnetic Sensors With a Weakly Pinned Free-Layer MTJ Stack Using a Three-Step Annealing Process Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 52 (7), 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Freitas, P P; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S

    Spintronic Sensors Journal Article

    Proceedings of the IEEE, 104 (10), pp. 1894-1918, 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2015

    Arias, Ravelo S I; Muñoz, Ramírez D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P

    Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor Journal Article

    Review of Scientific Instruments, 86 (6), pp. 066109, 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Ravelo, A; Sergio, I; Ramirez, D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Total ionizing dose (TID) evaluation of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) current sensors Journal Article

    Sensors and Actuators a-Physical, 225 (119-127), 2015.


    Valadeiro, J; Amaral, J; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Strategies for pTesla Field Detection Using Magnetoresistive Sensors With a Soft Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400204, 2015.


    Sievers, S; Liebing, N; Serrano-Guisan, S; Ferreira, R; E. Paz, Caprile A; Manzin, A; Pasquale, M; Skowronski, W; Stobiecki, T; Rott, K; Reiss, G; Langer, J; Ocker, B; Schumacher, H W

    Toward Wafer Scale Inductive Characterization of Spin-Transfer Torque Critical Current Density of Magnetic Tunnel Junction Stacks Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 1400804, 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Caprile, A; Manzin, A; Coisson, M; Pasquale, M; Schumacher, H W; Liebing, N; Sievers, S; Ferreira, R; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E

    Static and Dynamic Analysis of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions With Wedged MgO Barrier Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400304, 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Costa, JD ; Serrano-Guisan, S; Borme, J; Deepak, FL ; Tarequzzaman, M; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, PP

    Impact of MgO Thickness on the Performance of Spin-Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , 51 (11), 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Costa, Margaret ; Gaspar, Joao ; Ferreira, Ricardo ; Paz, Elvira ; Fonseca, Helder ; Martins, Marco ; Cardoso, Susana ; Freitas, Paulo P

    Integration of magnetoresistive sensors with atomic force microscopy cantilevers for scanning magnetoresistance microscopy applications Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 51 , 2015.


    Leitao, Diana C; Silva, Ana V; Paz, Elvira; Ferreira, Ricardo; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

    Magnetoresistive nanosensors: controlling magnetism at the nanoscale Journal Article

    Nanotechnology, 27 (4), 2015.


  • 2014

    D. C. Leitao E. Paz, Silva Moskaltsova Knudde Deepak Ferreira Cardoso A A S F L R S; Freitas, P P

    Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensing Devices With Soft Pinned Sensing Layer and Low Aspect Ratio Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 4410508, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, F A; Rosado, L S; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Ramos, P M; Piedade, M; Freitas, P P

    Improved Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Design for the Detection of Superficial Defects by Eddy Currents Testing Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 6201304, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    X. Q. Bao R. Ferreira, Paz Leitao Silva Cardoso Freitas E D A S P P; F.Liu, L

    Ordered arrays of tilted silicon nanobelts with enhanced solar hydrogen evolution performance Journal Article

    Nanoscale, 6 , pp. 2097-2101, 2014.


    Roldán, A; Roldán, J B; Reig, C; Cardoso, S; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integration Journal Article

    Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (17), pp. 17E514, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, S; Leitao, D C; Gameiro, L; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity Journal Article

    Microsyst. Technol., 20 , pp. 793-802, 2014.


    Z. Hou A. Silva, Leitao Ferreira Cardoso D C R S; Freitas, P P

    Micromagnetic and magneto-transport simulations of nanodevices based on MgO tunnel junctions for memory and sensing applications Journal Article

    Physica B: Condensed Matter, 435 , pp. 163-167, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Guo, D W; Cardoso, F A; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors array for non-destructive testing applications Journal Article

    J. Appl. Phys., 115 , pp. 17E513, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    F. A. Cardoso L. Rosado, Ferreira Paz Cardoso Ramos Piedade R E S P M M; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junction based eddy current testing probe for detection of surface defects Journal Article

    J. Appl. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 15E16, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    D. C. Leitao A. Silva, Ferreira Paz Deepack Cardoso R E F L S; Freitas, P P

    Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer Journal Article

    J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E526, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2013

    E. Paz S. Serrano-Guisan, Ferreira R; Freitas, P P

    Room temperature direct detection of low frequency magnetic fields in the 100 pT/Hz(0.5) range using large arrays of magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E501, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    A. Silva D. Leitao, Huo Macedo Ferreira Paz Deepak Cardoso Z R R E F L S; Freitas, P P

    Switching Field Variation in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillars: Experimental Results and Micromagnetic Simulations Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 4405-4408, 2013.


    A. Lopes S. Cardoso, Ferreira Paz Deepak Sanchez Ramirez Ravelo R E F L J D S; Freitas, P P

    MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Electrical Current Sensor With Integrated Ru Thermal Sensor Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3866-3869, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    J. Amaral V. Pinto, Costa Gaspar Ferreira Paz Cardoso T J R E S; Freitas, P P

    Integration of TMR Sensors in Silicon Microneedles for Magnetic Measurements of Neurons Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3515-3515, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, S; Gameiro, L; Leitao, D C; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P; Schmid, U; Aldavero, J; LeesterSchaede, M

    Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity for biomedical imaging Journal Article

    Smart Sensors, Actuators, and Mems, pp. 8763, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    F. Delgado K. Lopez, Ferreira R; Fernández-Rossier, J

    Intrinsic Spin Noise in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

    Appl. Phys. Lett. , 102 (63102), 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Liebing, Niklas; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Rott, Karsten; "u, G; "u, J; Ocker, Berthold; Schumacher, Hans Werner

    Tunneling magneto thermocurrent in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB based magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 102 (24), pp. 242413, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2012

    Arias, S; Munoz, D; Moreno, J; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors Journal Article

    Sensors, 13 (12), pp. 17516-17533, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    J. Ventura J. M. Teixeira, Paz J.S.Amaral J.D.Costa P.Araujo Cardoso Ferreira E J S R; P.P.Freitas,

    The influence of annealing on the bimodal distribution of blocking temperatures of exchange biased bilayers Journal Article

    Phys. Status Solidi RRL, 7 (9), pp. 676-680, 2012.


    R. Ferreira E. Paz, Freitas Wang P P J; Xue, S

    Large Area and Low Aspect Ratio Linear Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with a Soft-Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 3719, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    R. Ferreira E. Paz, Freitas Ribeiro Germano P P J J; Sousa, L

    2-axis Magnetometers Based on Full Wheatstone Bridges Incorporating Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Connected in Series Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4107, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    J. Sanchez D. Ramirez, Ravelo Lopes Cardoso Ferreira S A S R; Freitas, P P

    Electrical Characterization of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Current Sensor for Industrial Applications Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 2823, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    R. J. Janeiro L. Gameiro, Lopes Cardoso Ferreira Paz A S R E; Freitas, P P

    Linearization and Field Detectivity in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensors Connected in Series Incorporating 16nm-thick NiFe Free Layers Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4111, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX




Alex Jenkins
Staff Researcher

Elvira Paz
Staff Researcher

Tim Böhnert
Staff Researcher

Lara San-Emeterio
Research Fellow

Mohammad Tarequzzaman
Research Fellow

Leandro Martins
Research Fellow

Paulo Coelho
Research Engineer

also on the picture

Cosimo Spagnolo and Mohamed Belmoubarik
Research Engineers from Nanodevices

Luana Benetti and Oscar Ojeda Toro
Visitor from Universidade Federal de Santa Maria and Universidade Federal de Viçosa

Lianwei Wang, En Ping Tu, and Hefu Han
from LerTech Co.,Ltd

Previous Members

Diogo Costa
PhD Student
Moved to IMEC after working at INL during 2013-2017

Bertrand Lacoste
Old Group Member
Moved to Champalimaud after working at INL during 2013-2015

Santiago Serrano-Guisan
Old Group Member
Moved to Headway after working at INL during 2013-2015