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Spintronics

RESEARCH

DEPARTMENTS
Nanoelectronics engineering
RESEARCH GROUPS
SystemsEngineerings
nanodevices
spintronics
BTN_PME

DESCRIPTION

Spintronics is a research area trying to take profit from the spin of the electrons as a mean to obtain, transmit and process information. The spin of the electrons is a degree of freedom that is not explored by conventional electronics rely only on the electrical charge to drive electronic circuits. Spintronics use magnetic materials patterned at the nano-scale to produce spin polatized currents which drive a new class of beyond CMOS components which include magnetic field sensors, non-volatile memories and RF devices.

RESEARCH PROJECTS

The ability to integrate tunnel junctions in standard CMOS technology together with the readout simplicity (linear resistance variation with respect to external magnetic fields) and the large TMR of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB make magnetic tunnel junction sensors an ideal interface between electronic platforms and the physical world whenever magnetic fields are involved.

The production of high sensitivity sensors is focused on the development of linearization methods of large TMR CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB MTJs (TMR~200%) which are able to provide sensors with reduced coupling and coercive fields (Hc<1Oe, Hk<1Oe), sharp linear response (linear range tunable between 20-300 Oe) and stable domain distribution both in the large area limit (required for devices operating at very low frequency) and in the sub-micron range (required for large spatial resolution devices).

To that end, Complex MTJ stacks and methods to produce MTJs with reference layers in opposite directions (required to produce full Wheatstone bridges) were developed at INL.

Methods for the production of MTJ sensors on large area wafers (200 mm) with very tight dispersion (1-sigma dispersion of 2% in TMR) have been developed as well as methods for integration of Magnetic tunnel junctions with other types of technologies (magnetic sensors in MEMS structures and magnetic sensors in flexible substrates).

spintronicP2The Spintronics group is collaborating with leading European groups in the development of a range of different types of Nano-Oscillators across two European networks: MOSAIC and SpinICUR.

spintronicP2_1

During 2013 and 2014, INL was able to demonstrate the ability to produce STNOs with very large amplitude (the largest amplitudes reported in literature at this time), reasonable linewidths and monochromatic spectrums following two independent routes: using MTJs with thin free layers with in-plane magnetization but very close to the transition to out-of-plane magnetization and using MTJs with thicker MgO than usual.

spintronicP2_3

Spin-caloritronics [1] is a new emerging research field combining Spintronics (spin transport electronics) and Thermoelectricity (heat transport electronics) in magnetic nanostructured systems. At such a scale, thermal gradients can play an active role to control and manipulate spin-based effects enabling the generation of thermally induced spin currents [2,3] or even thermally driven magnetization reversal [4]. Such effects are very promising as they would allow to improve energy efficiency in future ICT (information and communication technology) devices. However, most of these novel concepts still need to be addressed and studied experimentally.

The aim of the European JRP SpinCal project is to understand, quantify, control and optimize spin-caloritronic effects in different magnetic nanosystems to evaluate their efficiency for future R&D applications.

Our work in this project is focused on: a) Developing novel MTJ stacks for future thermoelectric applications b.) Studying thermal gradient effects on MTJ magnetization dynamics.

This approach is based on recently observed large tunneling magneto Seebeck ratios in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structures [5, 6, 7], suggesting the potentiality of such devices, not only for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices or Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillators (STNOs), but also for on-chip energy harvesting applications. On the other hand, we believe that the exploration of heat driven magnetization dynamics could enable a better comprehension of Spin Transfer Torque (STT) magnetization dynamic phenomena in MTJ nanodevices and the contribution of heat, charge and spin currents at such conditions.

JRP SpinCal project partners Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany; National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK; Istituto Nazionale di Recerca Metrologica (INRIM), Italy; University of Bielefeld, Germany; Cambridge University, UK;International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Portugal; Institute of Physics of Czech Republic (FZU), Czech Republic.

spintronicP3

spintronicP4The ability to integrate the Spintronic devices in standard CMOS wafers is a fundamental step for large-scale production, dissemination and commercialization of the research produced at INL. Furthermore, Spintronics and CMOS technology can be integrated to create hybrid devices with functionalities which are not available in any of the two individual technologies.

An application where this integration is being made with a relative high density concerns the development of a matrix of magnetic sensors used to sense the magnetic field in a 0.5×0.5mm2 area. The topology of such matrix is very similar to the topology used in non-volatile memory applications (MRAM), but rather than using bi-stable elements, this matrix will use magnetic sensors with an analog output.

Such device will allow the capture of magnetic images which will be useful in applications such as cell histology. Magnetic nanoparticles attached to specific receptors in the cell surface can be imaged and provide useful information about specific biological systems.

spintronicP4_1

ON GOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

SPINTRONICSPINCURLSPINICUR

A Marie Curie Initial Training Network focused in Pure Spin Currents

Web


SPINTRONICSMOSAICMOSAIC

MicrOwave Spintronics as an AlternatIve Path to Components

Web


SPINTRONICSSPINCALSPINCAL

Enable fundamental understanding of new effects emerging in the field of spintronics and spin-caloritronics in magnetic nanosystems

Web

PAST RESEARCH PROJECTS

SPINTRONICSPINCURLINTEGRATION

Project Time Frame: 2012-2015

Towards hybrid integrated heterogeneous technology devices.


SPINTRONICSMOSAICMOSAIC

Project Time Frame: 2011-2014

The main objective of this project is to use a spin transfer torque magnetic nano-oscillator to perform injection locking on a low area low cost RF RC oscillator manufactured using standard CMOS technology.


PERPENDICULAR (PTDC-CTM-MET-118236-2010)

Project Time Frame: 2012-2015

The objective of this project is to manufacture magnetoresistive devices integrating ferromagnetic electrodes with perpendicular magnetization.

PUBLICATIONS

2018

Böhnert, T; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junction thermocouple for thermoelectric power harvesting Journal Article

Physics Letters A, 2018, ISSN: 0375-9601.

Links | BibTeX

Merazzo, K J; Costa, T; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Zander, M; Türr, M; Becker, T; Freitas, P P; Cardoso, S

Reading magnetic ink patterns with magnetoresistive sensors Journal Article

AIP Advances, 8 (5), pp. 056633, 2018.

Links | BibTeX

Tarequzzaman, M; Böhnert, T; Decker, M; Costa, J D; Borme, J; Lacoste, B; Paz, E; Jenkins, A S; Serrano-Guisan, S; Back, C H; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Magnetic oscillations Excited by Concurrent Spin Injection from a Tunneling Current and a Spin Hall Current Online

2018, visited: 10.04.2018, (arXiv: 1802.02224).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Tarequzzaman, M; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Borme, J; Martins, L; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Broadband voltage rectifier induced by linear bias dependence in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions Online

2018, visited: 13.04.2018, (arXiv: 1804.04104).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

2017

Silva, Ana V; Ferreira, Ricardo; Paz, Elvira; Leitao, Diana C; Devolder, Thibaut; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

Thermal FMR Spectral Characterization of Very Low RA In-Plane MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 53 (11), pp. 1–5, 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Vidal, Enrique García; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez; Arias, Sergio Iván Ravelo; Moreno, Jaime Sánchez; Cardoso, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo

Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor Journal Article

Materials, 10 (10), pp. 1134, 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Costa, J D; Serrano-Guisan, S; Lacoste, B; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Tarequzzaman, M; Borme, J; Deepak, F L; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

High power and low critical current density spin transfer torque nano-oscillators using MgO barriers with intermediate thickness Journal Article

Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Böhnert, T; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E; Lacoste, B; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junctions with integrated thermometers for magnetothermopower measurements Journal Article

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 29 (18), pp. 185303, 2017.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Böhnert, Tim ; Dutra, Roberta ; Sommer, Rubem L; Paz, Elvira ; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago ; Ferreira, Ricardo ; Freitas, Paulo P

Influence of the thermal interface resistance on the thermovoltage of a magnetic tunnel junction Journal Article

Physical Review B, 95 , pp. 104441, 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Martins, L; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Optimization of the buffer surface of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions by ion beam milling Journal Article

Applied Surface Science, 424 , pp. 58 - 62, 2017, ISSN: 0169-4332, (7th International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials, 2nd International Conference on Graphene Technology, 1st International Conference on Spintronics Materials).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

2016

Knudde, S; Farinha, G; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

AlOx barrier growth in magnetic tunnel junctions for sensor applications Journal Article

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 412 , pp. 181-184, 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Romera, M; Talatchian, P; Lebrun, R; Merazzo, K J; Bortolotti, P; Vila, L; Costa, J D; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P; Cyrille, M C; Ebels, U; Cros, V; Grollier, J

Enhancing the injection locking range of spin torque oscillators through mutual coupling Journal Article

Applied Physics Letters, 109 (25), 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Linearization of Magnetic Sensors With a Weakly Pinned Free-Layer MTJ Stack Using a Three-Step Annealing Process Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 52 (7), 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Freitas, P P; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S

Spintronic Sensors Journal Article

Proceedings of the IEEE, 104 (10), pp. 1894-1918, 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Huisman, TJ; Mikhaylovskiy, RV; Costa, JD; Freimuth, F; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Freitas, PP; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Rasing, Th; Kimel, T

Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures Journal Article

Nature Nanotechnology, 11 , pp. 455, 2016.

Links | BibTeX

2015

Arias, Ravelo S I; Muñoz, Ramírez D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P

Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor Journal Article

Review of Scientific Instruments, 86 (6), pp. 066109, 2015.

Links | BibTeX

Ravelo, A; Sergio, I; Ramirez, D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Total ionizing dose (TID) evaluation of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) current sensors Journal Article

Sensors and Actuators a-Physical, 225 (119-127), 2015.

BibTeX

Valadeiro, J; Amaral, J; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

Strategies for pTesla Field Detection Using Magnetoresistive Sensors With a Soft Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400204, 2015.

BibTeX

Sievers, S; Liebing, N; Serrano-Guisan, S; Ferreira, R; E. Paz, Caprile A; Manzin, A; Pasquale, M; Skowronski, W; Stobiecki, T; Rott, K; Reiss, G; Langer, J; Ocker, B; Schumacher, H W

Toward Wafer Scale Inductive Characterization of Spin-Transfer Torque Critical Current Density of Magnetic Tunnel Junction Stacks Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 1400804, 2015.

Links | BibTeX

Caprile, A; Manzin, A; Coisson, M; Pasquale, M; Schumacher, H W; Liebing, N; Sievers, S; Ferreira, R; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E

Static and Dynamic Analysis of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions With Wedged MgO Barrier Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400304, 2015.

Links | BibTeX

Costa, JD ; Serrano-Guisan, S; Borme, J; Deepak, FL ; Tarequzzaman, M; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, PP

Impact of MgO Thickness on the Performance of Spin-Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , 51 (11), 2015.

Links | BibTeX

Costa, Margaret ; Gaspar, Joao ; Ferreira, Ricardo ; Paz, Elvira ; Fonseca, Helder ; Martins, Marco ; Cardoso, Susana ; Freitas, Paulo P

Integration of Magnetoresistive Sensors With Atomic Force Microscopy Cantilevers for Scanning Magnetoresistance Microscopy Applications Proceeding

51 (11), 2015.

BibTeX

Leitao, Diana C; Silva, Ana V; Paz, Elvira; Ferreira, Ricardo; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

Magnetoresistive nanosensors: controlling magnetism at the nanoscale Journal Article

Nanotechnology, 27 (4), 2015.

BibTeX

2014

D. C. Leitao E. Paz, Silva Moskaltsova Knudde Deepak Ferreira Cardoso A A S F L R S; Freitas, P P

Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensing Devices With Soft Pinned Sensing Layer and Low Aspect Ratio Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 4410508, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

Cardoso, F A; Rosado, L S; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Ramos, P M; Piedade, M; Freitas, P P

Improved Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Design for the Detection of Superficial Defects by Eddy Currents Testing Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 6201304, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

X. Q. Bao R. Ferreira, Paz Leitao Silva Cardoso Freitas E D A S P P; F.Liu, L

Ordered arrays of tilted silicon nanobelts with enhanced solar hydrogen evolution performance Journal Article

Nanoscale, 6 , pp. 2097-2101, 2014.

BibTeX

Roldán, A; Roldán, J B; Reig, C; Cardoso, S; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integration Journal Article

Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (17), pp. 17E514, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

Cardoso, S; Leitao, D C; Gameiro, L; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity Journal Article

Microsyst. Technol., 20 , pp. 793-802, 2014.

BibTeX

Z. Hou A. Silva, Leitao Ferreira Cardoso D C R S; Freitas, P P

Micromagnetic and magneto-transport simulations of nanodevices based on MgO tunnel junctions for memory and sensing applications Journal Article

Physica B: Condensed Matter, 435 , pp. 163-167, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

Guo, D W; Cardoso, F A; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors array for non-destructive testing applications Journal Article

J. Appl. Phys., 115 , pp. 17E513, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

F. A. Cardoso L. Rosado, Ferreira Paz Cardoso Ramos Piedade R E S P M M; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junction based eddy current testing probe for detection of surface defects Journal Article

J. Appl. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 15E16, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

D. C. Leitao A. Silva, Ferreira Paz Deepack Cardoso R E F L S; Freitas, P P

Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer Journal Article

J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E526, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

2013

E. Paz S. Serrano-Guisan, Ferreira R; Freitas, P P

Room temperature direct detection of low frequency magnetic fields in the 100 pT/Hz(0.5) range using large arrays of magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E501, 2013.

Links | BibTeX

A. Silva D. Leitao, Huo Macedo Ferreira Paz Deepak Cardoso Z R R E F L S; Freitas, P P

Switching Field Variation in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillars: Experimental Results and Micromagnetic Simulations Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 4405-4408, 2013.

BibTeX

A. Lopes S. Cardoso, Ferreira Paz Deepak Sanchez Ramirez Ravelo R E F L J D S; Freitas, P P

MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Electrical Current Sensor With Integrated Ru Thermal Sensor Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3866-3869, 2013.

Links | BibTeX

J. Amaral V. Pinto, Costa Gaspar Ferreira Paz Cardoso T J R E S; Freitas, P P

Integration of TMR Sensors in Silicon Microneedles for Magnetic Measurements of Neurons Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3515-3515, 2013.

Links | BibTeX

Cardoso, S; Gameiro, L; Leitao, D C; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P; Schmid, U; Aldavero, J; LeesterSchaede, M

Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity for biomedical imaging Journal Article

Smart Sensors, Actuators, and Mems, pp. 8763, 2013.

Links | BibTeX

F. Delgado K. Lopez, Ferreira R; Fernández-Rossier, J

Intrinsic Spin Noise in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

Appl. Phys. Lett. , 102 (63102), 2013.

Links | BibTeX

2012

Arias, S; Munoz, D; Moreno, J; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors Journal Article

Sensors, 13 (12), pp. 17516-17533, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

J. Ventura J. M. Teixeira, Paz J.S.Amaral J.D.Costa P.Araujo Cardoso Ferreira E J S R; P.P.Freitas,

The influence of annealing on the bimodal distribution of blocking temperatures of exchange biased bilayers Journal Article

Phys. Status Solidi RRL, 7 (9), pp. 676-680, 2012.

BibTeX

R. Ferreira E. Paz, Freitas Wang P P J; Xue, S

Large Area and Low Aspect Ratio Linear Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with a Soft-Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 3719, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

R. Ferreira E. Paz, Freitas Ribeiro Germano P P J J; Sousa, L

2-axis Magnetometers Based on Full Wheatstone Bridges Incorporating Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Connected in Series Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4107, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

J. Sanchez D. Ramirez, Ravelo Lopes Cardoso Ferreira S A S R; Freitas, P P

Electrical Characterization of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Current Sensor for Industrial Applications Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 2823, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

R. J. Janeiro L. Gameiro, Lopes Cardoso Ferreira Paz A S R E; Freitas, P P

Linearization and Field Detectivity in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensors Connected in Series Incorporating 16nm-thick NiFe Free Layers Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4111, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

GROUP LEADER

ricardoferreira

THE TEAM

Alex Jenkins
Staff Researcher

Elvira Paz
Staff Researcher

Tim Böhnert
Staff Researcher

Lara San-Emeterio
Research Fellow

Mohammad Tarequzzaman
Research Fellow

Paulo Coelho
Research Engineer

Diogo Costa
PhD Student

Bertrand Lacoste
Old Group Member

Santiago Serrano-Guisan
Old Group Member
Moved to Headway after working at INL during 2013-2015

DESCRIPTION

Spintronics is a research area trying to take profit from the spin of the electrons as a mean to obtain, transmit and process information. The spin of the electrons is a degree of freedom that is not explored by conventional electronics rely only on the electrical charge to drive electronic circuits. Spintronics use magnetic materials patterned at the nano-scale to produce spin polatized currents which drive a new class of beyond CMOS components which include magnetic field sensors, non-volatile memories and RF devices.

RESEARCH PROJECTS

The ability to integrate tunnel junctions in standard CMOS technology together with the readout simplicity (linear resistance variation with respect to external magnetic fields) and the large TMR of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB make magnetic tunnel junction sensors an ideal interface between electronic platforms and the physical world whenever magnetic fields are involved.

The production of high sensitivity sensors is focused on the development of linearization methods of large TMR CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB MTJs (TMR~200%) which are able to provide sensors with reduced coupling and coercive fields (Hc<1Oe, Hk<1Oe), sharp linear response (linear range tunable between 20-300 Oe) and stable domain distribution both in the large area limit (required for devices operating at very low frequency) and in the sub-micron range (required for large spatial resolution devices).

To that end, Complex MTJ stacks and methods to produce MTJs with reference layers in opposite directions (required to produce full Wheatstone bridges) were developed at INL.

Methods for the production of MTJ sensors on large area wafers (200 mm) with very tight dispersion (1-sigma dispersion of 2% in TMR) have been developed as well as methods for integration of Magnetic tunnel junctions with other types of technologies (magnetic sensors in MEMS structures and magnetic sensors in flexible substrates).

spintronicP2The Spintronics group is collaborating with leading European groups in the development of a range of different types of Nano-Oscillators across two European networks: MOSAIC and SpinICUR.

spintronicP2_1

During 2013 and 2014, INL was able to demonstrate the ability to produce STNOs with very large amplitude (the largest amplitudes reported in literature at this time), reasonable linewidths and monochromatic spectrums following two independent routes: using MTJs with thin free layers with in-plane magnetization but very close to the transition to out-of-plane magnetization and using MTJs with thicker MgO than usual.

spintronicP2_3

Spin-caloritronics [1] is a new emerging research field combining Spintronics (spin transport electronics) and Thermoelectricity (heat transport electronics) in magnetic nanostructured systems. At such a scale, thermal gradients can play an active role to control and manipulate spin-based effects enabling the generation of thermally induced spin currents [2,3] or even thermally driven magnetization reversal [4]. Such effects are very promising as they would allow to improve energy efficiency in future ICT (information and communication technology) devices. However, most of these novel concepts still need to be addressed and studied experimentally.

The aim of the European JRP SpinCal project is to understand, quantify, control and optimize spin-caloritronic effects in different magnetic nanosystems to evaluate their efficiency for future R&D applications.

Our work in this project is focused on: a) Developing novel MTJ stacks for future thermoelectric applications b.) Studying thermal gradient effects on MTJ magnetization dynamics.

This approach is based on recently observed large tunneling magneto Seebeck ratios in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structures [5, 6, 7], suggesting the potentiality of such devices, not only for magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices or Spin Transfer Torque Nano-oscillators (STNOs), but also for on-chip energy harvesting applications. On the other hand, we believe that the exploration of heat driven magnetization dynamics could enable a better comprehension of Spin Transfer Torque (STT) magnetization dynamic phenomena in MTJ nanodevices and the contribution of heat, charge and spin currents at such conditions.

JRP SpinCal project partners Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany; National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK; Istituto Nazionale di Recerca Metrologica (INRIM), Italy; University of Bielefeld, Germany; Cambridge University, UK;International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), Portugal; Institute of Physics of Czech Republic (FZU), Czech Republic.

spintronicP3

spintronicP4The ability to integrate the Spintronic devices in standard CMOS wafers is a fundamental step for large-scale production, dissemination and commercialization of the research produced at INL. Furthermore, Spintronics and CMOS technology can be integrated to create hybrid devices with functionalities which are not available in any of the two individual technologies.

An application where this integration is being made with a relative high density concerns the development of a matrix of magnetic sensors used to sense the magnetic field in a 0.5×0.5mm2 area. The topology of such matrix is very similar to the topology used in non-volatile memory applications (MRAM), but rather than using bi-stable elements, this matrix will use magnetic sensors with an analog output.

Such device will allow the capture of magnetic images which will be useful in applications such as cell histology. Magnetic nanoparticles attached to specific receptors in the cell surface can be imaged and provide useful information about specific biological systems.

spintronicP4_1

ON GOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

SPINTRONICSPINCURLSPINICUR

A Marie Curie Initial Training Network focused in Pure Spin Currents

Web


SPINTRONICSMOSAICMOSAIC

MicrOwave Spintronics as an AlternatIve Path to Components

Web


SPINTRONICSSPINCALSPINCAL

Enable fundamental understanding of new effects emerging in the field of spintronics and spin-caloritronics in magnetic nanosystems

Web

PAST RESEARCH PROJECTS

SPINTRONICSPINCURLINTEGRATION

Project Time Frame: 2012-2015

Towards hybrid integrated heterogeneous technology devices.


SPINTRONICSMOSAICMOSAIC

Project Time Frame: 2011-2014

The main objective of this project is to use a spin transfer torque magnetic nano-oscillator to perform injection locking on a low area low cost RF RC oscillator manufactured using standard CMOS technology.


PERPENDICULAR (PTDC-CTM-MET-118236-2010)

Project Time Frame: 2012-2015

The objective of this project is to manufacture magnetoresistive devices integrating ferromagnetic electrodes with perpendicular magnetization.

PUBLICATIONS

2018

Böhnert, T; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junction thermocouple for thermoelectric power harvesting Journal Article

Physics Letters A, 2018, ISSN: 0375-9601.

Links | BibTeX

Merazzo, K J; Costa, T; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Zander, M; Türr, M; Becker, T; Freitas, P P; Cardoso, S

Reading magnetic ink patterns with magnetoresistive sensors Journal Article

AIP Advances, 8 (5), pp. 056633, 2018.

Links | BibTeX

Tarequzzaman, M; Böhnert, T; Decker, M; Costa, J D; Borme, J; Lacoste, B; Paz, E; Jenkins, A S; Serrano-Guisan, S; Back, C H; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Magnetic oscillations Excited by Concurrent Spin Injection from a Tunneling Current and a Spin Hall Current Online

2018, visited: 10.04.2018, (arXiv: 1802.02224).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Tarequzzaman, M; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Borme, J; Martins, L; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Broadband voltage rectifier induced by linear bias dependence in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions Online

2018, visited: 13.04.2018, (arXiv: 1804.04104).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

2017

Silva, Ana V; Ferreira, Ricardo; Paz, Elvira; Leitao, Diana C; Devolder, Thibaut; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

Thermal FMR Spectral Characterization of Very Low RA In-Plane MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 53 (11), pp. 1–5, 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Vidal, Enrique García; Muñoz, Diego Ramírez; Arias, Sergio Iván Ravelo; Moreno, Jaime Sánchez; Cardoso, Susana; Ferreira, Ricardo; Freitas, Paulo

Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor Journal Article

Materials, 10 (10), pp. 1134, 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Costa, J D; Serrano-Guisan, S; Lacoste, B; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Tarequzzaman, M; Borme, J; Deepak, F L; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

High power and low critical current density spin transfer torque nano-oscillators using MgO barriers with intermediate thickness Journal Article

Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Böhnert, T; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E; Lacoste, B; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junctions with integrated thermometers for magnetothermopower measurements Journal Article

Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 29 (18), pp. 185303, 2017.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Böhnert, Tim ; Dutra, Roberta ; Sommer, Rubem L; Paz, Elvira ; Serrano-Guisan, Santiago ; Ferreira, Ricardo ; Freitas, Paulo P

Influence of the thermal interface resistance on the thermovoltage of a magnetic tunnel junction Journal Article

Physical Review B, 95 , pp. 104441, 2017.

Links | BibTeX

Martins, L; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Optimization of the buffer surface of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions by ion beam milling Journal Article

Applied Surface Science, 424 , pp. 58 - 62, 2017, ISSN: 0169-4332, (7th International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials, 2nd International Conference on Graphene Technology, 1st International Conference on Spintronics Materials).

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

2016

Knudde, S; Farinha, G; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

AlOx barrier growth in magnetic tunnel junctions for sensor applications Journal Article

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 412 , pp. 181-184, 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Romera, M; Talatchian, P; Lebrun, R; Merazzo, K J; Bortolotti, P; Vila, L; Costa, J D; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P; Cyrille, M C; Ebels, U; Cros, V; Grollier, J

Enhancing the injection locking range of spin torque oscillators through mutual coupling Journal Article

Applied Physics Letters, 109 (25), 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Linearization of Magnetic Sensors With a Weakly Pinned Free-Layer MTJ Stack Using a Three-Step Annealing Process Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 52 (7), 2016.

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Freitas, P P; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S

Spintronic Sensors Journal Article

Proceedings of the IEEE, 104 (10), pp. 1894-1918, 2016.

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Huisman, TJ; Mikhaylovskiy, RV; Costa, JD; Freimuth, F; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Freitas, PP; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Rasing, Th; Kimel, T

Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures Journal Article

Nature Nanotechnology, 11 , pp. 455, 2016.

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2015

Arias, Ravelo S I; Muñoz, Ramírez D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P

Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor Journal Article

Review of Scientific Instruments, 86 (6), pp. 066109, 2015.

Links | BibTeX

Ravelo, A; Sergio, I; Ramirez, D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Total ionizing dose (TID) evaluation of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) current sensors Journal Article

Sensors and Actuators a-Physical, 225 (119-127), 2015.

BibTeX

Valadeiro, J; Amaral, J; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

Strategies for pTesla Field Detection Using Magnetoresistive Sensors With a Soft Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400204, 2015.

BibTeX

Sievers, S; Liebing, N; Serrano-Guisan, S; Ferreira, R; E. Paz, Caprile A; Manzin, A; Pasquale, M; Skowronski, W; Stobiecki, T; Rott, K; Reiss, G; Langer, J; Ocker, B; Schumacher, H W

Toward Wafer Scale Inductive Characterization of Spin-Transfer Torque Critical Current Density of Magnetic Tunnel Junction Stacks Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 1400804, 2015.

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Caprile, A; Manzin, A; Coisson, M; Pasquale, M; Schumacher, H W; Liebing, N; Sievers, S; Ferreira, R; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E

Static and Dynamic Analysis of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions With Wedged MgO Barrier Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400304, 2015.

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Costa, JD ; Serrano-Guisan, S; Borme, J; Deepak, FL ; Tarequzzaman, M; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, PP

Impact of MgO Thickness on the Performance of Spin-Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , 51 (11), 2015.

Links | BibTeX

Costa, Margaret ; Gaspar, Joao ; Ferreira, Ricardo ; Paz, Elvira ; Fonseca, Helder ; Martins, Marco ; Cardoso, Susana ; Freitas, Paulo P

Integration of Magnetoresistive Sensors With Atomic Force Microscopy Cantilevers for Scanning Magnetoresistance Microscopy Applications Proceeding

51 (11), 2015.

BibTeX

Leitao, Diana C; Silva, Ana V; Paz, Elvira; Ferreira, Ricardo; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

Magnetoresistive nanosensors: controlling magnetism at the nanoscale Journal Article

Nanotechnology, 27 (4), 2015.

BibTeX

2014

D. C. Leitao E. Paz, Silva Moskaltsova Knudde Deepak Ferreira Cardoso A A S F L R S; Freitas, P P

Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensing Devices With Soft Pinned Sensing Layer and Low Aspect Ratio Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 4410508, 2014.

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Cardoso, F A; Rosado, L S; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Ramos, P M; Piedade, M; Freitas, P P

Improved Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Design for the Detection of Superficial Defects by Eddy Currents Testing Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 6201304, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

X. Q. Bao R. Ferreira, Paz Leitao Silva Cardoso Freitas E D A S P P; F.Liu, L

Ordered arrays of tilted silicon nanobelts with enhanced solar hydrogen evolution performance Journal Article

Nanoscale, 6 , pp. 2097-2101, 2014.

BibTeX

Roldán, A; Roldán, J B; Reig, C; Cardoso, S; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integration Journal Article

Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (17), pp. 17E514, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

Cardoso, S; Leitao, D C; Gameiro, L; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity Journal Article

Microsyst. Technol., 20 , pp. 793-802, 2014.

BibTeX

Z. Hou A. Silva, Leitao Ferreira Cardoso D C R S; Freitas, P P

Micromagnetic and magneto-transport simulations of nanodevices based on MgO tunnel junctions for memory and sensing applications Journal Article

Physica B: Condensed Matter, 435 , pp. 163-167, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

Guo, D W; Cardoso, F A; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors array for non-destructive testing applications Journal Article

J. Appl. Phys., 115 , pp. 17E513, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

F. A. Cardoso L. Rosado, Ferreira Paz Cardoso Ramos Piedade R E S P M M; Freitas, P P

Magnetic tunnel junction based eddy current testing probe for detection of surface defects Journal Article

J. Appl. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 15E16, 2014.

Links | BibTeX

D. C. Leitao A. Silva, Ferreira Paz Deepack Cardoso R E F L S; Freitas, P P

Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer Journal Article

J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E526, 2014.

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2013

E. Paz S. Serrano-Guisan, Ferreira R; Freitas, P P

Room temperature direct detection of low frequency magnetic fields in the 100 pT/Hz(0.5) range using large arrays of magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E501, 2013.

Links | BibTeX

A. Silva D. Leitao, Huo Macedo Ferreira Paz Deepak Cardoso Z R R E F L S; Freitas, P P

Switching Field Variation in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillars: Experimental Results and Micromagnetic Simulations Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 4405-4408, 2013.

BibTeX

A. Lopes S. Cardoso, Ferreira Paz Deepak Sanchez Ramirez Ravelo R E F L J D S; Freitas, P P

MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Electrical Current Sensor With Integrated Ru Thermal Sensor Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3866-3869, 2013.

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J. Amaral V. Pinto, Costa Gaspar Ferreira Paz Cardoso T J R E S; Freitas, P P

Integration of TMR Sensors in Silicon Microneedles for Magnetic Measurements of Neurons Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3515-3515, 2013.

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Cardoso, S; Gameiro, L; Leitao, D C; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P; Schmid, U; Aldavero, J; LeesterSchaede, M

Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity for biomedical imaging Journal Article

Smart Sensors, Actuators, and Mems, pp. 8763, 2013.

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F. Delgado K. Lopez, Ferreira R; Fernández-Rossier, J

Intrinsic Spin Noise in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

Appl. Phys. Lett. , 102 (63102), 2013.

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2012

Arias, S; Munoz, D; Moreno, J; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors Journal Article

Sensors, 13 (12), pp. 17516-17533, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

J. Ventura J. M. Teixeira, Paz J.S.Amaral J.D.Costa P.Araujo Cardoso Ferreira E J S R; P.P.Freitas,

The influence of annealing on the bimodal distribution of blocking temperatures of exchange biased bilayers Journal Article

Phys. Status Solidi RRL, 7 (9), pp. 676-680, 2012.

BibTeX

R. Ferreira E. Paz, Freitas Wang P P J; Xue, S

Large Area and Low Aspect Ratio Linear Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with a Soft-Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 3719, 2012.

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R. Ferreira E. Paz, Freitas Ribeiro Germano P P J J; Sousa, L

2-axis Magnetometers Based on Full Wheatstone Bridges Incorporating Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Connected in Series Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4107, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

J. Sanchez D. Ramirez, Ravelo Lopes Cardoso Ferreira S A S R; Freitas, P P

Electrical Characterization of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Current Sensor for Industrial Applications Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 2823, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

R. J. Janeiro L. Gameiro, Lopes Cardoso Ferreira Paz A S R E; Freitas, P P

Linearization and Field Detectivity in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensors Connected in Series Incorporating 16nm-thick NiFe Free Layers Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4111, 2012.

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GROUP LEADER

blank-male

THE TEAM

Elvira Paz
Staff researcher

Bertrand Lacoste
Research Fellow

Tim Böhnert
Research Fellow

Diogo Costa
PhD Student

Mohammad Tarequzzaman
PhD Student

Santiago Serrano-Guisan
Old Group Member
Moved to Headway after working at INL during 2013-2015

RESEARCH

Nanoelectronics engineering
DEPARTMENTS
RESEARCH GROUPS
SystemsEngineerings
nanodevices
spintronics
BTN_PME