Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials

Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials Research Group

The Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group focus on the study of the atomic structure, atomic composition and defect behavior of nanomaterials, through in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), aberration-corrected TEM/STEM, precession electron diffraction and EELS/EDS techniques. In particular, the group is interested in understanding the relationships between the atomic structure, composition and the properties of nanomaterials, and the fundamental underlying mechanisms of structural and property changes induced by crystalline defects. The material systems of interest include battery materials, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, catalyst nanoparticles and 2D materials.

HIGHLIGHTS

Throughout 2021, the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group attended a series of events such as INL-BINA Workshop on February 23rd, Battery Summit on March 22nd and 23rd, Planning for Sustainability of Research Infrastructures on May 25th, Latin America-Europe Symposium on Research Infrastructures on June 15th, 16th and 17th and Microscopy and Microanalysis from August 1st to 7th. Those events provided great input about the latest research on the microscopy field and the possibility to engage in high level debates.

On the 10th and 11th of October the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group was attending the Mission 10.000: Batteries Conference 2019 at International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal.

Charles Amos introduced a welcome message related with “The European Battery Landscape” and Cristiana Alves had an oral presentation about: “Compositional Mapping of LiNixCoyMnzO2 Cathode Materials”.

Mission-10000-batteriesed-768x681The Mission 10.000: Batteries brings together researchers, innovators, and policy-makers to discuss the current and future trends in battery storage to help position the EU as a major player in the future battery storage market, a multi-billion euro market that is set to grow rapidly in the near future.

From: https://nanogateway.eu/en/mission-batteries/

On the 20th of September two members and the group leader of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the UT Austin Portugal Programme conference 2019 in University of Minho, Portugal.utaustin1-768x529

From the 11th to the 13th of September four members and the group leader of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the Microscopy at the Frontiers of Science 2019 conference in Granada, Spain.

mfs-300x245Microscopy at the frontiers os science congress series (MFS 2019) is a joint meeting of SME and SPMicros. The conference offers to microscopists and professionals from Portugal, Spain and beyond the opportunity to exchange ideas and for commercial companies to show their latest innovations in advanced light and electron microscopy imaging, sample preparation, image analysis, among others.

From 1st to the 5th of September three members of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the EUROMAT 2019 conference in Stockholm, Sweden.

Charles Amos, Ricardo Sousa and Bruno Oliveira presented “Understanding the Cubic-to-Tetragonal Transition of Mn3O4 as a Surface Layer of Li1-x[Mn2]O4”, “Microstructural characterization of TiC-white cast iron composite fabricated by in situ method” and “Grain size and orientation of nanocrystalline copper films”, respectively.

EUROMAT is the premier international congress in the field of materials science and technology in Europe. It explores topics as functional materials, structural materials, processing, characterization and modelling, energy and environment, materials for healthcare, raw materials, bio-based materials…

From 4th to the 8th of August two members of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the Microscopy & Microanalysis 2019 conference in Portland, Oregon.

Sebastian Velasco and Charles Amos presented “Understanding the Structure of LiMn2O4 by Differential Phase Contrast” and “Effect of Chemical Treatment on the Surface Structure of Li1-x[Mn2]O4”, respectively.

Microscopy & Microanalysis 2019 is a microscopy conference with over 1200 platform, poster sessions, workshops, tutorials, networking events and the world’s largest annual microscopy exhibition, which showcases the latest in microscopy instrumentation and accessories.

mammtest1.jpg

ON GOING RESEARCH PROJECTS

Researcher: Fátima Zorro (IST, Lisboa)

Supervisor: Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)
Co – supervisor:Dr. Enrique Carbó-Argibay (INL, Braga)

Funding FCT

As the demand for developing environmentally friendly and energy efficient technologies increases, it is critical to devise processes to produce materials that match those requirements at lower costs. In this context, flash sintering (FS) can become a viable substitution to conventional sintering, leading to a reduction of the processing time from days/hours to minutes/seconds, while significantly decreasing the operation temperatures, particularly in the case of ceramic materials. Among the candidate materials suitable for flash-sintering, this project focus on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which is widely used for energy devices, such as fuel cells. More specifically, this project proposes to investigate films of YSZ by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to simulate in real-time the flash sintering process. Under these conditions, YSZ will be subjected to different electric fields and processing temperatures inside the TEM, to fundamental, understand the kinetic and thermodynamic mechanisms that govern the flash sintering process.

To develop a fundamental understanding of the flash-sintering process, there are still various issues that are currently unanswered, in particular:

  • What are the local driving forces for FS?
  • What are the diffusion mechanisms involved in the process?
  • What is the impact of Frenkel pairs in FS?
  • What is the effect of specimen scale on the FS process?

Researcher: Rafael Ferreira (IST, Lisboa)

Supervisor: Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)
Co – supervisor: Dr. Sebastian Calderon

Two-dimensional (2D) materials hold much promise for the next generation of electronic devices, even for such exotic applications like quantum computing. However, the extremely complex construction and the potentially large impact of defects present in the constituent layers are challenges that must be faced to make envisioned technologies into commercially viable options.

The state of current production methods then presents a considerable obstacle to the development of 2D material-based technologies, as defects are inevitably introduced during the synthesis and transfer processes, and the production of large-area crystals is still challenging. On the other hand, some defects may give rise to effects that can be useful for certain applications and so the formation of these must be controlled. Consequently, investigating the formation and influence of defects is a critical facet of 2D materials research.

To answer these challenges, aberration‑corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) can provide sub-angstrom spatial resolution [1] to locate and identify substitutional defects in 2D materials [2], while atomic-level characterisation of the electronic structure is made possible by employing electron energy‑loss spectroscopy (EELS) [3-5]. Yet, the functional properties of any material are fundamentally determined by the electromagnetic fields and the associated distribution of atomic charges within the structure. A direct measurement of these features would therefore grant a fundamental understanding on how localised deformations caused by defects impact material systems as a whole.

The ability to probe the charge density is therefore highly desired. In this regard, differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging [6,7], an electron microscopy technique going through a rapid development, is sensitive to the intrinsic electromagnetic fields of a sample and can make use of the atomic resolution of STEM. Additionally, for non-magnetic, weakly scattering specimens such as many 2D materials, DPC can be directly related to the projected electric field, establishing these structures as the ideal objects of study.

Thus, this work will implement the capabilities of DPC to examine the atomic charge distributions and defect-induced redistributions in 2D materials that hold potential for quantum electronics, as well as structures and devices in which they are used. This investigation will be complemented by inspection of the electronic transport properties with in‑situ STEM-DPC observations, where a bias can be applied to the specimen while changes in conductive behaviour are monitored in real time.

References

  • Sawada, H., et al. Resolving 45-pm-separated Si-Si atomic columns with aberration‑corrected STEM. Microscopy 64, 213−217 (2015).
  • Krivanek, O. L., et al. Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy. Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).
  • Zhou, W., et al. Direct determination of the chemical bonding of individual impurities in graphene. Rev. Lett. 109, 206803 (2012).
  • Ramasse, Q. M., et al. Probing the bonding and electronic structure of single atom dopants in graphene with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Lett. 13, 4989–4995 (2013).
  • Suenaga, K. & Koshino, M. Atom-by-atom spectroscopy at graphene edge. Nature 468, 1088–1090 (2010).
  • Dekkers, N. H. & de Lang, H. Differential phase contrast in a STEM. Optik 41, 452−456 (1974).
  • Shibata, N., et al. Direct Visualization of Local Electromagnetic Field Structures by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Chem. Res. 50, 1502−1512 (2017).

Researcher: Francisco Figueiredo (Univ. of Porto)
Supervisors: Prof. Sandra Ribeiro (Univ. of Porto) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Funding: Portuguese Foundation for Science (FCT), PhD fellowship

Structural analysis of Ataxin-3 aggregation pathway. SDS-resistant elongated mature fibrils form by pathogenic Ataxin-3 visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cartoon representation of Ataxin-3 globular Josephin Domain (JD) involved in the first Atx3 aggregation step. JD aggregation prone region highlighted in red

Structural analysis of Ataxin-3 aggregation pathway. SDS-resistant elongated mature fibrils form by pathogenic Ataxin-3 visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cartoon representation of Ataxin-3 globular Josephin Domain (JD) involved in the first Atx3 aggregation step. JD aggregation prone region highlighted in red

Ataxin-3 (Atx3) is one of nine proteins containing an expandable polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat segment that are associated with late-onset human neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregation of the non-pathological and polyQ-expanded Atx3 is well characterized and is critically dependent on early self-assembly events modulated by its globular Josephin domain. PolyQ expansion beyond a certain threshold elicits a second (polyQ-dependent) aggregation step that is critical to mature fibril generation. Biophysical studies unveiled the Atx3 multistep aggregation pathway, but structural data on the nature of the intermediates formed is still lacking. To uncover the structural aspects of Atx3 aggregation intermediates, advanced electron microscopy and optical microscopy approaches will be used.

Researcher: Ricardo Sousa (Univ. of Porto)
Supervisors: Prof. Laura Ribeiro (Univ. of Porto) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Funding: Ferespe, Fundição de Ferro e Aço Lda

Cast duplex stainless steels (DSS) have been applied in highly corrosive conditions, such as marine environments (oil and gas), chemical and petrochemical industry, as well as pulp and paper industry. The superior performance of these material is achieved by a balanced microstructure, consisting of approximately equal amounts of ferrite (α) and austenite (γ) in the as-heat treated condition. In terms of mechanical properties, the balanced microstructure is beneficial to obtain high toughness and high strength, when compared to austenitic stainless steels with same corrosion resistance.

In the most severe applications, DSS grades with high Cr, Ni, Mo and N are required, to ensure the best performance in terms of pitting, stress and inter-crystalline corrosion. Among these DSS, the so-called super (SDSS) and hyper grades (HDSS) contain even higher Cr and N contents, when compared with other DSS grades. As a consequence, these grades are prone to the formation of detrimental secondary phases, in particular sigma (σ) and chi (χ). The destabilization of duplex microstructure is more pronounced on thick areas of casting components. The primary objective of this project is to characterize among several different secondary phases that may form during casting of large DSS components and to establish kinetic models for their formation, by means of correlate the information collected on optical microscopy, as well the scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques.

BSE-SEM image of DSS containing α, γ, χ- and σ-phases, ascending ordered by brightness levels. On right side, the distribution of principal thermal residual stresses. The maximum stresses are concentrated on interfaces between α (lower coefficient of thermal expansion) and the γ, χ- and σ-phases areas.

BSE-SEM image of DSS containing α, γ, χ- and σ-phases, ascending ordered by brightness levels. On right side, the distribution of principal thermal residual stresses. The maximum stresses are concentrated on interfaces between α (lower coefficient of thermal expansion) and the γ, χ- and σ-phases areas.

Currently, a methodology to identify χ- from σ-phases has been presented, which allow us to measure their volume percent. Therefore, volume percent measurements are critical data to establish the kinetic models of each phase, to tailor the appropriate cooling cycle. The methodology is based on matching between different the grey levels of χ- from σ-phases on BSE-SEM images with semi-quantitative chemical analysis with aid of EDS. Therefore, the semi-quantitative analysis on SEM are compared with measurements by means of TEM-EDS. In fact, TEM plays a key role on characterization methodology, due to electron diffraction capability in order to unequivocally identify χ- and σ-phases. Finally, as the identification is complete, an image segmentation procedure can be applied to BSE-SEM images.

Apart from the kinetics description of secondary phases formation, being able to detect and identify all the phases that may be present on DSS castings allows us to study how their distribution can affect the magnitude and gradient of thermal residual stresses. A finite element method has been used, where BSE-SEM images are inputs and it is possible to assign the elastic properties (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ration) and coefficient of thermal expansion to individual phases. The application of a thermal gradient, the software calculates maps of distribution of principle stresses. In fact, due to significant differences in terms of coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal residual stresses arise and interfaces acts as concentration areas of stresses.

Researcher: Postdoc (to be hired)
Supervisors: Prof. Paulo Ferreira

Partners: INL, GALP, FEUP, FCT-NOVA
Funding: PT – 2020

The valorisation of natural gas through Gas-to-Liquids technology plays an essential role in the transport industry. This project combines catalyst development and reactor design to efficiently produce synthetic fuels of superior quality using a continuous Fischer-Tropsch process.

Researcher: Dr. Alec LaGrow
Supervisors: Dr. Andrea Capasso (INL) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL)

Partners: INL, Graphnest, University of Minho, UT-Austin
Funding: PT – 2020

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an interesting phenomenon that affects all electronic devices working in an environment surrounded by external sources of radiated signals and electromagnetic radiation, such as antennas and other electronic devices. Within the context of electromagnetic compatibility, EMI is considered a potential and major source of operating problems to electronic devices and a cause of the performance and lifetime reduction, especially in a world where electronic devices are increasingly ubiquitous. In this context, current shielding materials used to protect electronic devices from EMI are based on heavy, brittle, and expensive metals. At the same time, the major EMI applications have a huge demand for flexible, additive, light, and inexpensive materials. This is of crucial importance, for instance, for several vehicles industries, from hybrid and electrical cars to airplanes, where weight reduction is imperative to increase autonomy and reduce carbon footprint. Graphene and related materials are considered the most promising and effective candidates for effective EMI shielding because of their excellent electrical properties, extremely high specific surface area, and unprecedented strength to weight ratio. The GEMIS project aims to develop versatile EMI shielding solutions based on graphene materials and technology and make a significant impact in several applications and sectors that require highly versatile shielding solutions able to comply with various production processes. To achieve this, the project proposes developing a universal formulation for a liquid dispersion of graphene materials with highly effective EMI shielding and the consequent production of two EMI shielding composites based on polymers and epoxies. Finally, custom-made equipment will be designed and fabricated to specifically apply the developed EMI shielding solutions on electric wires in the automotive industry.

Researcher: Dr. Cristiana Alves
Supervisors: Sandra Carvalho (University of Coimbra) and Paulo Ferreira (INL)

Partners: University of Minho, DENTAL VERDE – CLÍNICA MÉDICA E DENTÁRIA, LDA
Funding: PT – 2020

The project will develop a new concept of dental implants. A novel surface with graded functional treatments will give a solution for the main problems of dental implants used nowadays: poor bioactivity that delays osseointegration, and periimplantitis, an inflammatory disease due to bacterial infection. The strategy to achieve this novel design will be accomplished through the development of a bioactive surface based on the synergetic effect of anodic tantalum oxide with multilevel porosity (nano to micro), as well as the development of an antimicrobial delivery system based on Ag or ZnO nanoparticles deposited by magnetron sputtering onto the anodic tantalum oxide (micro+nano) structured surface.

Researcher: Ricardo Sousa
Supervisors: Laura Ribeiro (University of Porto) and Paulo Ferreira (INL)

Partners: INL, INEGI, FEUP
Funding: PT – 2020

In this project a multiscale study of multiphase stainless steels will be addressed. These advanced materials belong to the new generation of steels with increasing applications due to their high strength, toughness, and corrosion properties. Their applications and potential are wide as they can be processed in many different ways ranging from casting to bulk and sheet metal forming. The microstructure of these steels, which is complex and depend on the alloying and thermal processing, affects their behaviour during the processing stages and eventually during their final application. How does the microstructure affects the final properties, how it affects ductility, how it affects damage and fracture mechanisms during processing are the subjects to be researched. The team from INEGI has a strong experience on material modelling of large deformations on metal forming applications. Its expertise ranges from numerical and material constitutive modelling and experimental development. The team from the Department of Metallurgy and Materials of FEUP has a strong experience on processing and microstructural and mechanical characterization of metallic and intermetallic materials, including nanomaterials. This expertise is complemented by the relevant expertise of INL team in advanced TEM for investigations at the atomic scale of nanomaterials. Their common interest and competence on material constitutive behaviour are focused on two approaches at three different scales, nano, micro and macro. The project will bring together the various competences by building a coupled multiscale model, anchored on a robust numerical model and thorough experimental studies on microstructures.

Researcher: Dr. Rúben Santos and Bruno Oliveira
Supervisors: Manuel Vieira (University of Porto) and Paulo Ferreira (INL)

Partners: INL, FEUP
Funding: PT – 2020

The ongoing miniaturization of integrated circuits (IC) and the small dimensions of IC components present significant challenges in terms of performance and reliability. In more advanced IC, such as the 14 nm node technology, the nanoscale of interconnects raises problems that are scale dependent, such as dewetting of thin films during production or electromigration during normal use. In addition, the current processing methodologies employed by the semiconductor industry face considerable challenges during the annealing stage, due to the detachment of the deposited copper layers. Miniaturization also requires that the thickness of the diffusion barrier be scaled down accordingly. This thinning imposes the substitution of the Ta/TaN barrier commonly used to inhibit copper diffusion into the dielectric. In this project, we propose to study the factors involved in dewetting and electromigration phenomena of thin copper films deposited over different substrates (which simulate the diffusion barrier layers), and evaluate the mechanisms which trigger the formation of defects by varying the processing parameters. The deposition conditions, the substrate composition and the copper film thickness are three factors that will be considered in this study. These factors have a strong influence on grain size, twin density and texture, thus conditioning the response of the copper film. Copper films will be deposited in substrate materials simulating the most common diffusion barrier, Ta/TaN films, and also in advanced diffusion barriers, namely, CoW, RuW and RuMn. Structural characterization of the films will be performed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction. In situ observations will also be carried out in both scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Developing interconnects with great electrical conductivity remains the main objective of the microelectronic industry. Thus, electrical tests will be conducted on the materials that mitigate dewetting and electromigration after the annealing treatments. The development of this project will produce advances in understanding how thin copper films behave under different thermal and electrical responses, and how the substrate-film interfaces react to the various dewetting stages.

Researcher: Dr. Saha Sabyasachi
Supervisors: Leonard Francis (INL) and Paulo Ferreira (INL)

Partners: INL, University of Aveiro, University Nova de Lisboa
Funding: PT – 2020

Piezoelectrics as Potassium-Sodium-Niobate (KNN) have currently an emerging importance due to its lead-free nature and wide range of high-tech applications as sensors, actuators, energy harvesters, biosensors, etc. However, monophasic dense KNN products are yet difficult to obtain. This project proposes a new method to densify materials abruptly above a threshold condition using FLASH sintering, where the transition occurs by a combination of furnace temperature and electrical field directly applied to the specimen. There are several proposed mechanisms for FLASH: Joule heating is the most reported one, but a defect avalanche in the form of precipitated Frenkel pairs which ionize into charge neutral defects and electron-hole pairs, is being defended as well. Defects enhance diffusion while electron-hole pairs induce high conductivity and photoemission. A clear understanding of the phenomena does not exist yet. The present work aims to exploit FLASH for sintering KNN in different dimensionalities (bulk, films, nanoparticles) and study the science behind FLASH sintering with the following objectives: (i) To investigate the dependence of FLASH on the KNN dimensionality; (ii) To identify the densification mechanisms involved in FLASH sintering of KNN and to overcome possible deleterious effects of the presence of electrical fields; (iii) To contribute to the development of alternative sintering techniques for functional oxides aiming to decrease the thermal budget, ultimately towards room temperature processing (iv) To prove the concept for low temperature sintering of bidimensional KNN (thin films on flexible substrates), not yet explored by FLASH, and extend it to other lead free oxides.

Researcher: Dr. Enrique Carbó-Argibay
Supervisors: Prof. Paulo Ferreira

Partners: TEandM – Tecnologia, Engenharia e Materiais S.A, Instituto Pedro Nunes – Associação para a Inovação e Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Tecnologia, INL, UT Austin
Funding: COMPETE; FCT

The measuring devices available in the market for manufacturing processes are many times not able to accurately evaluate important process parameters due to positioning problems or deficient signal acquisition and transfer. The Soft4Sense project will create software able to supply the necessary information for depositing thin film device without mechanical/electrical integrity problems
There is a bottleneck that has impeded the commercial application of thin-film devices, not just in Portugal but worldwide: their mechanical integrity. The construction of these films is based on the stacking of layers, each one with a specific role, requiring a suitable matching between them. The mechanical/electrical integrity of the thin film device has to be improved and optimized to allow their reliable and reproducible production in order to be offered to the industrial market. Sputtering is an excellent technique to develop/optimize/adapt new materials, being the perfect solution for optimizing layers matching in stacking.
The software will guide the deposition of the multilayer stacking with the appropriate conditions to achieve a reliable/reproducible product. Although this is only a simple program which, from the information about the required characteristics of the stacking layers (e.g. residual stress level, defects density, electrical characteristics, hardness, Young’s modulus), supplies the deposition conditions for the stacks fabrication, each input information results from a complex task where simulation and experimental work is required in a closed-loop approach.

Researcher: Dr. Enrique Carbó-Argibay
Supervisors: Dr. Lorena Diéguez

Partners: Stemmatters, Biotecnologia e Medicina Regenerativa S.A., INL, ICVS – Life and Health Sciences Research Institute, 2CA – Clinic Academic Center and University of Texas at Austin (UTA)
Funding: POFC – COMPETE; FCT

Cancer, when identified early, is likely to respond more effectively to treatment, resulting in a greater probability of survival, generating less morbidity and reducing the cost of treatment. Early diagnosis focuses on the identification of symptomatic cancer cases at the earliest possible stage as compared to screening that seeks asymptomatic cancer or pre-cancerous lesions. Due to limitations, it is not yet possible to use extensively screening to prevent cancer (primary prevention). Screening can over-diagnose cancer conditions, implying that premalignant lesions for which medical intervention is not advisable neither desirable receive treatment generating co-morbidities that would be otherwise avoidable. This situation has resulted in the recent past in an epidemic of cancers such as prostate cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ.

Remote patient monitoring (RPM) of cancer diseases can be potentially used to increase current predictive rates while contributing to a more cost-effective and accessible diagnosis and treatment. Patients at high risk of cancer recurrence would constitute an ideal population for such improved cancer monitoring tools. These novel tools should have the ability to remotely generate personalized patient data, which should be used to detect disease onset or progression. While RPM has been predominantly applied for the monitorization of vital signs, the extension of such a concept to monitorization of high-risk profile patients would constitute a significant jump forward in the prevention and early diagnosis of cancer patients.

SENTINEL project proposes the innovative development of remote monitoring tools for high-risk profile cancer patients. Such technology aims to increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of cancer screening while facilitating the remote and ubiquitous monitoring of patients on large scale. The main objective of the SENTINEL project is to develop a minimally invasive and biocompatible implantable biosensor to be used in the early tumor surveillance in post-operative prostate cancer patients, supported by the following accomplishments:

  • To develop novel biocompatible and injectable formulations able to assure low foreign body reaction after implantation;
  • To establish encapsulation protocols for novel plasmonic particles using hydrogel-based formulations;
  • To develop simple, affordable and low-risk implantation procedures able to be implemented in a clinical setting;
  • To acquire transdermal Raman signals based on implanted biosensor using a handheld Raman device;
  • To test the system’s signaling using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo protocols that model physiologically disease-relevant conditions;
  • To process and classify acquired data using machine learning algorithms;
  • To develop computational predictive diagnostic protocols using acquired biosensor spectra.

PUBLICATIONS

  • 2021

    Rúben F Santos, Bruno Oliveira, Alexandre Chícharo, Pedro Alpuim, Paulo J Ferreira, Sónia Simões, Filomena Viana, Manuel F Vieira

    Seedless Cu Electroplating on Co-W Thin Films in Low pH Electrolyte: Early Stages of Formation Journal Article

    Nanomaterials 2021, 11 , pp. 1914, 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Sergey Tkachev, Miguel Monteiro, João Santos, Ernesto Placidi, Mohamed Ben Hassine,Pedro Marques, Paulo Ferreira, Pedro Alpuim and Andrea Capasso

    Environmentally-Friendly Graphene Inks for Touch Screen Sensors Journal Article

    Advanced Functional Materials, pp. 2103287, 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Melina Zysler, Tal Klingbell, Charles D. Amos, Paulo Fereira and David Zitoun

    Carbon Supported Pt-Ni Octahedral Electrocatalysts as a Model to Follow Nickel Corrosion and Particle Detachment Journal Article

    Catalysis Science and Technology, In Press , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    S. Calderon, R. Ribeiro. P.J. Ferreira

    Manganese Migration in Li1-xMn2O4 Cathode Materials Journal Article

    Ultramicroscopy, 225 , pp. 113285 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Kumaraguru, Swami; Gu, Wenbin; Kukreja, Ratandeep; Yu, Kang; Groom, Daniel; Ferreira, Paulo

    High-Current Density Durability of Pt/C and PtCo/C Catalysts at Similar Particle Sizes in PEMFCs Journal Article

    Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 168 (2), pp. 024519 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    A Castro and I Carvalho and L Marques and P J Ferreira and A Cavaleiro and S Carvalho and S Calderon

    Galvanic Oxidation of Bimetallic Zn-Fe Nanoparticles for Oxygen Scavenging Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 537 , 2021.

    Links | BibTeX

    Eliran R. Hamo, Ramesh K. Singh, John C. Douglin, Sian Chen, Mohamed Ben Hassine, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, Shanfu Lu, Haining Wang, Paulo J. Ferreira, Brian A. Rosen, Dario R. Dekel

    Carbide-Supported PtRu Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction in Alkaline Electrolyte Journal Article

    ACS Catalysis, 11 , pp. 932−947 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Marcel S. Claro, Justyna Grzonka, Nicoleta Nicoara, Paulo J. Ferreira, Sascha Sadewasser

    Wafer‐Scale Fabrication of 2D β‐In2Se3 Photodetectors Journal Article

    Advanced Optical Materials, 9 , pp. 2001034 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2020

    Alexandre F. Carvalho, António J.S. Fernandes, Mohamed Ben Hassineb, Paulo Ferreira, Elvira Fortunato, Florinda M. Costa

    Millimeter-sized few-layer suspended graphene membranes Journal Article

    Applied Materials Today, 21 , pp. 100879, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    S A Salehizadeh and I Carvalho and R Serra and P J Ferreira and A Cavaleiro and S Carvalho

    Role of Au incorporation in the electrochemical behavior of Ag/a: C nanocomposite coatings Journal Article

    Surface and Coatings Technology, 401 (126240), 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

    Lixiang Liu, Jiawei Wang, Steffen Oswald, Junping Hu, Hongmei Tang, Jinhui Wang, Yin Yin, Qiongqiong Lu, Lifeng Liu, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Shaozhuan Huang, Haiyun Dong, Libo Ma, Feng Zhu, Minshen Zhu, Oliver G. Schmidt

    Decoding of Oxygen Network Distortion in a Layered High-Rate Anode by In Situ Investigation of a Single Microelectrode Journal Article

    ACS Nano. ACS, 14 (9), pp. 11753–11764, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Yun Huang and Kang Yu and Huaizhi Li and Kai Xu and Zexi Liang and Debora Walker and Paulo Ferreira and Peer Fischer and Donglei (Emma) Fan

    Scalable Fabrication of Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructures and its Assembly Journal Article

    Advanced Materials, 32 (43), 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

    F Fernandes and S Calderon and P J Ferreira and A Cavaleiro and J.C. Oliveira

    Low peak power deposition regime in HiPIMS: Deposition of hard and dense nanocomposite Ti-Si-N films by DOMS without the need of energetic bombardment Journal Article

    Surface and Coatings Technology, 397 , 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

    Katariina Pussi, Bernardo Barbiellini, Koji Ohara, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Yury V. Kolen’ko, Arun Bansil, Saeed Kamali

    Structural properties of PbTe quantum dots revealed by high-energy x-ray diffraction Journal Article

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 33 (48), 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Guangchao Zheng, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Elisa González-Romero, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos

    Pd-Au heteropentamers: Selective growth of Au on Pd tetrahedral nanoparticles with enhanced electrocatalytic activity Journal Article

    Crystal Growth & Design. ACS, 20 (9), pp. 5863–5867, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Carlos Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier Fernández-Lodeiro, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Carlos Lodeiro, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos

    The versatility of Fe(II) in the synthesis of uniform citrate-stabilized plasmonic nanoparticles with tunable size at room temperature Journal Article

    Nano Research. Springer, 13 , pp. 2351–2355, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Katariina Pussi, Juan Gallo, Koji Ohara, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Yury V. Kolen’ko, Bernardo Barbiellini, Arun Bansil, Saeed Kamali

    Structure of manganese oxide nanoparticles extracted via pair distribution functions Journal Article

    Condensed Matter, 5 (1), pp. 19, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Almeida C F Alves and Calderon S V. and P J Ferreira and L Marques and S Carvalho

    Passivation and dissolution mechanisms in ordered anodic tantalum oxide nanostructures Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 513 , pp. 145575, 2020, ISSN: 0169-4332.

    Links | BibTeX

    Liliana P. L. Gonçalves, David Benjamin Christensen, Maria Meledina, Laura M. Salonen, Dmitri Y. Petrovykh, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Juliana P. S. Sousa, Salomé Soares, Manuel Fernando Pereira, Søren Kegnæs, Yury V. Kolen'ko

    Selective formic acid dehydrogenation at low temperature over RuO2/COF pre-catalyst synthesized on the gram scale Journal Article

    Catalysis Science & Technology. RSC, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Tânia Ribeiro and Ana Sofia Rodriguesa and Sebastian Calderon and Alexandra Fidalgo and José L M Gonçalves and Vânia André and Teresa M Duarte and Paulo J Ferreira and José Paulo S Farinha and Carlos Baleizão

    Silica nanocarriers with user-defined precise diameters by controlled template self-assembly Journal Article

    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 561 , pp. 609-619, 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2019

    Zhiwei Fang and Ping Wu and Kang Yu and Yifan Li and Yue Zhu and Paulo J Ferreira and Yuanyue Liu and Guihua Yu

    Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Gel Electrocatalyst for Stable Acidic Water Oxidation Journal Article

    ACS Nano, 13 (12), pp. 14368-14376, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Yue Zhu and Yujin Ji and Zhengyu Ju and Kang Yu and Paulo Ferreira and Yuanyue Liu and Guihua Y.

    Ultrafast Intercalation Enabled by Strong Solvent–Host Interactions: Understanding Solvent Effect at the Atomic Level Journal Article

    Angewandte Chemie, 58 (48), pp. 17205-17209, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Jun Pan and Kang Yu and Hongzhi Mao and Lili Li and Yuchen Zhang and Yanlu Li and Paulo J.Ferreira and JianYang

    Crystalline Sb or Bi in amorphous Ti-based oxides as anode materials for sodium storage Journal Article

    Chemical Engineering Journal, 380 , pp. 122624, 2019, ISSN: 1385-8947.

    Links | BibTeX

    R O Sousa and P Lacerda and P J Ferreira and L M M Ribeiro

    On the Precipitation of Sigma and Chi Phases in a Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel Journal Article

    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 50 (10), pp. 4758–4778, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Pablo Tancredi and Luelc Souza da Costa and Sebastian Calderon and Oscar Moscoso-Londoño and Leandro M Socolovsky and Paulo J Ferreira and Diego Muraca and Daniela Zanchet and Marcelo Knobel

    Exploring the synthesis conditions to control the morphology of gold-iron oxide heterostructures Journal Article

    Nano Research, 12 (8), pp. 1781–1788, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Almeida C F Alves and L Marques and S.Calderon V. and P J Ferreira and D Schneider and A Cavaleiro and S Carvalho

    An experimental and theoretical study on the crystal structure and elastic properties of Ta1−xOx coatings Journal Article

    Surface and Coatings Technology, 364 , pp. 289-297, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Vanegas H S P and Calderon S V and Alfonso J E O and Olaya J J F and P J Ferreira and S Carvalho

    Influence of silicon on the microstructure and the chemical properties of nanostructured ZrN-Si coatings deposited by means of pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputtering Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 481 , 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2018

    R O Sousa and I Felde and P J Ferreira and A M Deus and L M M Ribeiro

    Inverse Methodology for Estimating the Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Duplex Stainless Steel Casting Journal Article

    Materials Design and Applications II, 98 , pp. 59-69, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Somaye Rasouli and Deborah Myers and Nancy Kariuki and Kenji Higashida and Naotoshi Nakashima and Paulo Ferreira

    On the Electrochemical Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected STEM Study Journal Article

    Nano Letters, 19 (1), 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    I Carvalho and S Ferdov and C Mansilla and S M Marques and Pastrana L M M. A. Cerqueira and M Henriques and C Gaidau and P Ferreira and S Carvalho

    Development of antimicrobial leather modified with Ag–TiO2 nanoparticles for footwear industry Journal Article

    Science and Technology of Materials, 20 , pp. 60-68, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    D J Groom and K Yu and S Rasouli and J Polarinakis and A C Bovik and P J Ferreira

    Automatic Segmentation of Inorganic Nanoparticles in BF TEM Micrographs Journal Article

    Ultramicroscopy, 194 , pp. 25-34, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    A AL-Rjoub and L Rebouta and P Costa and N P Barradas and E Alves and P J Ferreira and K Abderrafi and A.Matilainen and K.Pischow

    A design of selective solar absorber for high temperature applications Journal Article

    Solar Energy, 172 (2), pp. 177-183, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Calderon V S. and Ribeiro T. and Farinha J P S. and Baleizão C. and Ferreira P J.

    On the Structure of Amorphous Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles by Aberration-Corrected STEM Journal Article

    Small, 14 (40), 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    M C Gonçalves and R F P Pereira and P Ferreira and E Carbó-Argibay and J Catita and G Toquer and S C Nunes and Zea V de Bermudez

    Structuring of di-alkyl-urethanesils Journal Article

    Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    P.Paradiso and R.L.Santos and R.B.Horta and J.N.C.Lopes and P.J.Ferreira and R.Colaço

    Formation of nanocrystalline tobermorite in calcium silicate binders with low C/S ratio Journal Article

    Acta Materialia, 152 , pp. 7-15, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    M C Gonçalves and R F P Pereira and P Ferreira and E Carbó-Argibay and J Catita and G Toquer and S C Nunes and Zea V de Bermudez

    Structuring of di-alkyl-urethanesils Journal Article

    Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 89 (1), pp. 205-215, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Sitaramanjaneva Mouli Thalluri and Jerome Borme and Kang Yu and Junyuan Xu and Isilda Amorim and Joao Gaspar and Liang Qiao and Paulo Ferreira and Pedro Alpuim and Lifeng Liu

    Conformal and continuous deposition of bifunctional cobalt phosphide layers on p-silicon nanowire arrays for improved solar hydrogen evolution Journal Article

    Nano Research, 11 (9), pp. 4823-4835, 2018, ISSN: 1998-0000.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    R K Ahluwalia and X Wang and J-K Peng1 and N N Kariuki and D J Myers and S Rasouli and P J Ferreira and Z Yang and A Martinez-Bonastre and D Fongalland and J Sharman

    Durability of De-Alloyed Platinum-Nickel Cathode Catalyst in Low Platinum Loading Membrane-Electrode Assemblies Subjected to Accelerated Stress Tests Journal Article

    Journal of Electrochemical Society, 165 (6), 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    C.Fernandes and S.Calderon V. and Lina F.Ballesteros and Miguel A Cerqueira and L.M.Pastrana and José A.Teixeira and P.J.Ferreira and S.Carvalho

    Carbon-based sputtered coatings for enhanced chitosan-based films properties Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 433 , pp. 689-695, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2017

    Minori Uchimiya and Joseph J Pignatello and Jason C White and Szu-Tung Hu and Paulo J Ferreira

    Structural Transformation of Biochar Black Carbon by C60 Superstructure: Environmental Implications Journal Article

    Scientific Reports, 7 (11787), 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Karalee Jarvis and Chih-Chieh Wang and Maria Varela and Raymond R Unocic and Arumugam Manthiram and Paulo J Ferreira†

    Surface Reconstruction in Li-Rich Layered Oxides of Li-Ion Batteries Journal Article

    Chemical Materials, 29 (18), pp. 7668-7674, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Minori Uchimiya and Joseph J Pignatello and Jason C White and Szu-Lung Hu and Paulo J Ferreira

    Surface Interactions between Gold Nanoparticles and Biochar Journal Article

    Scientific Reports, 7 (5027), 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Aleksandr P Kryshtal and Alexey Minenkov Paulo A J Ferreira

    Interfacial Kinetics in Nanosized Au/Ge Films: an in situ TEM Study Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 409 , pp. 343-349, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Le Xin and Fan Yang and Jian Xie and Zhiwei Yang and Nancy N Kariuki and Deborah J Myers and Jui-Kun Peng and Xiaohua Wang and Rajesh K Ahluwalia and Kang Yu and Paulo J Ferreira and Alex Martinez Bonastre and Dash Fongalland and Jonathan Sharmanf

    Enhanced MEA Performance for PEMFCs under Low Relative Humidity and Low Oxygen Content Conditions via Catalyst Functionalization Journal Article

    Journal of Electrochemical Society, 164 (6), pp. F674-F684, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Calderon S V. and B Gomes and P J Ferreira and S Carvalho

    Zinc Nanostructures for Oxygen Scavenging Journal Article

    Nanoscale, 16 (9), pp. 5254-5262, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Firat C Cetinbas and Rajesh K Ahluwalia and Nancy Kariuki and Vincent De Andrade and Dash Fongalland and Linda Smith and Jonathan Sharman and Paulo Ferreira and Somaye Rasouli and Deborah J Myers

    Hybrid approach combining multiple characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes Journal Article

    Journal of Power Sources, 344 (15), pp. 62-73, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    S Rasouli and Ortiz R A Godoy and Yang Z M Gummalla and S C Ball and D Myers and P.J.Ferreira

    Surface area loss mechanisms of Pt3Co nanocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells Journal Article

    Journal of Power Sources, 343 , pp. 571-579, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2016

    Laranjeira M S. and Moço A. and Ferreira J. and Coimbra S. and Costa E. and Santos-Silva A. and Ferreira P J. and Monteiro F.J.

    Different hydroxyapatite magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging: Its effects on hemostatic, hemolytic activity and cellular cytotoxicity Journal Article

    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 146 , 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Karalee A Jarvis and Chih-Chieh Wang and James C Knight and Lew Rabenberg and Arumugam Manthiram and Paulo J Ferreira

    Formation and effect of orientation domains in layered oxide cathodes of lithium-ion batteries Journal Article

    Acta Materialia, 108 , pp. 264-270, 2016.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Charles D Amos and Manuel A Roldan and Maria Varela and John B Goodenough and Paulo J Ferreira

    Revealing the Reconstructed Surface of Li[Mn2]O4 Journal Article

    Nano Letters, 16 (5), 2016.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Le Xin and Somaye Rasouli and Fan Yang and Aytekin Uzunoglu and Cheng-Jun Sun and Paulo Jorge Ferreira and Yuzi Liu and Lia Stanciu and Jian Xie

    Understanding Pt nanoparticle anchoring on graphene supports through surface functionalization Journal Article

    ACS Catalysis, 6 (4), pp. 2642-2653, 2016.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2015

    James A Gilbert and Nancy N Kariuki and Xiaoping Wang and Jeremy A Kropf and Kang Yu and Daniel J Groom and Paulo J Ferreira and Dane Morgan and Deborah J Myers

    Pt Catalyst Degradation in Aqueous and Fuel Cell Environments studied via In-Operando Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Journal Article

    Electrochimica Acta, 10 , pp. 223-234, 2015.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Mallika Gummall and Sarah C Ball and David A Condit and Somaye Rasouli and Kang Yu and Paulo J Ferreira and Deborah J Myers and Zhiwei Yang

    Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability Journal Article

    Catalysts, 5 (2), pp. 926-948, 2015.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    James A Gilbert and Jeremy A Kropf and Nancy N Kariuki and Stacy DeCrane and Xiaoping Wang and Somaye Rasouli and Kang Yu and Paulo J Ferreira and Dane Morgan and Deborah J Myers

    In-Operando Anomalous Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Investigation of Pt3Co Catalyst Degradation in Aqueous and Fuel Cell Environments Journal Article

    Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162 (14), pp. F1487-F1497, 2015.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2014

    Kang Yu and Daniel J Groom and Xiaoping Wang and Zhiwei Yang and Mallika Gummall and Sarah C Ball and Deborah J Myers and Paulo J Ferreira

    Degradation Mechanisms of Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: The Role of Particle Size Journal Article

    Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20 , pp. 482-483, 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    M A Asoro and P J Ferreira and D Kovar

    In Situ TEM and STEM Studies of Sintering of Ag and Pt Nanoparticles Journal Article

    Acta Materialia, 81 , pp. 173-183, 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Katayun Barmak and Amith Darbal and Kameswaran J Ganesh and Paulo J Ferreira and Jeffrey M Rickman and Tik Sun and Bo Yao and Andrew P Warren and Kevin R Coffey

    Surface and grain boundary scattering in nanometric Cu thin films: A quantitative analysis including twin boundaries Journal Article

    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, 32 , 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Thandavarayan Maiyalagan and Karalee A Jarvis and Soosairaj Therese and Paulo J Ferreira and Arumugam Manthiram

    Spinel-type lithium cobalt oxide as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions Journal Article

    Nature Communications, 5 (3949), 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    M A Asoro and D Kovar and P J Ferreira

    Effect of surface carbon coating on sintering of silver nanoparticles: in situ TEM observations Journal Article

    Chemical Communications, 37 , 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2013

    Karalee A Jarvis and Chih-Chieh Wang and Arumugam Manthiram and Paulo J Ferreira

    The role of composition in the atomic structure, oxygen loss, and capacity of layered Li–Mn–Ni oxide cathodes Journal Article

    Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2 , pp. 1353-1362, 2013.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Chih-Chieh Wang and Karalee A Jarvis and Paulo J Ferreira and Arumugam Manthiram

    Effect of synthesis conditions on the first charge and reversible capacities of lithium-rich layered Oxides Journal Article

    Chemistry of Materials, 25 (15), pp. 3267–3275, 2013.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Linjun Cao and K J Ganesh and Lijuan Zhang and Oliver Aubel and Christian Hennesthal and Meike Hauschildt and Paulo J Ferreira and Paul S Ho

    Grain structure analysis and effect on electromigration reliability in nanoscale Cu interconnects Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 102 , pp. 131907-1:131907-4, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    J T Graham and G L Brennecka and P J Ferreira and L Small and D Duquette and C Apblett and S Landsberger and J F Ihlefeld

    Neutron irradiation effects on domain wall mobility and reversibility in lead zirconate titanate thin films Journal Article

    Journal of Applied Physics, 113 (124104), 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    A Darbal and K J Ganesh and X Liu and S -B Lee and J Ledonne and T Sun and B Yao and A P Warren and G S Rohrer and A D Rollett and P J Ferreira and K R Coffey and K Barmak

    Grain Boundary Character Distribution of Nanocrystalline Cu Thin Films Using Stereological Analysis of Transmission Electron Microscope Orientation Maps Journal Article

    Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19 (1), pp. 111-119, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    B Patrick and H Ham and Y Shao-Horn and L Allard and G Hwang and P J Ferreira

    Atomic Structure and Composition of “Pt3Co” Nanocatalysts in Fuel Cells: An Aberration-Corrected STEM HAADF Study Journal Article

    American Chemical Society, 25 (4), pp. 530-535, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

CONFERENCES

  • S. Zafari, T. Eerola, P.J. Ferreira, H. Kalviainen, Alan Bovik, “Automated Segmentation of Nanoparticles in BF TEM Images by U-Net Binarization and Branch and Bound”, 18th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, 2-5 September, Salerno, Italy, (2019)

S Rasouli, D Groom, K Yu, A Godoy, A Bovik, D Myers, Naotoshi Nakashima, PJ Ferreira, “On the Study of PEM Fuel Cells by Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22, S3, pp. 1280-1281, (2016);

D Groom, S Rasouli, K Yu, A Bovik, PJ Ferreira, “A Precise Description of Inorganic Nanoparticles in HRTEM Micrographs”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22 (S3), 548-549, (2016);

ST Hu, K Hattar, P Ferreira, “Texture and Phase Analysis in Nanocrystalline Ni Thin Films by Precession Electron Diffraction Microscopy”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22 (S3), 526-527, (2016).

C Amos, MA Roldan, M Varela, JB Goodenough, PJ Ferreira, “Understanding the Surface Structure of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathodes with Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM and EELS”,Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S3), 1375-1376, (2015);

ST Hu, L Morganti, S Rajasekhara, K Hattar, P Ferreira, “Texture and Phase Analysis in Nanocrystalline Ni Thin Films by Precession Electron Diffraction Microscopy”,Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S3), 1457-1458, (2015);

S Rasouli, MR Berber, IH Hafez, T Fujigaya, P Ferreira, N Nakashima, “Identical Location Aberration Corrected TEM Study on the Degradation Mechanism of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes in High Temperature Fuel Cells”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S3), E2-E3, (2015);

RF Santos, F Viana, PJ Ferreira, “Microstructure Evolution with Direct Current Density on Electrodeposited Copper Films”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S5), 45-46, (2015);

Somaye Rasouli, Jonathan Sharman, Alex Martinez, Dash Fongalland, Graham Hards, Tomokazu Yamamoto, Deborah Myers, Kenji Higashida, Paulo Ferreira, “AberrationCorrected STEM Study on Pt 0.8 Ni De-alloyed Nanocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 20 (S3), pp. 480-481, (2014).

Shreyas Rajasekhara, PJ Ferreira, K Hattar, “Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline nickel thin films due to high-energy heavy-ion irradiation”, Application of Accelerators in Research and industry: Twenty-Second International Conference, Vol. 1525, pp. 630-635, AIP Publishing, (2013);

J. T. Graham, S. Landsberger, D. Millsap, P.J. Ferreira, C. Frahme, R. L. Dougherty, “Curriculum Development for a Modular Short Course on Radiation Effects in Electronics”, Transactions European Nuclear Society, Madrid, Spain, November 17-21, pp. 281-287, (2013);

K.A. Jarvis, Z.Q. Deng, L. F. Allard, A. Manthiram, and P.J. Ferreira, “Understanding Structural Defects in Lithium-rich Layered Oxide Cathodes by Aberration-Corrected STEM”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (suppl. 2), pp. 1414-1415, (2012);

K. Jarvis, Z. Deng, A. Manthiram, P.J. Ferreira, ”Understanding the Role of Lithium Content on the Structure and Capacity of Lithium-Rich Layered Oxides by Aberration-Corrected STEM, D-STEM, and EDS”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (suppl. 2), pp. 1484-1485, (2012);

E.A. Stach, D. Su, P. Ercius, K. J. Ganesh, P.J. Ferreira, Y. Zhu, K. Yager, S. Murali, M.D. Stoller, W. Cai, Adam Pirkle, Robert M. Wallace, Katie A. Cychosz, Matthias Thommes, and R.S. Ruoff, “High-Resolution Characterization of Activated Graphene for Supercapacitor Applications”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (suppl. 2), pp. 1536-1537, (2012).

BOOKS

Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design: An Introduction for Engineers and Architects, D. Schodek (Harvard University) P.J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin) and Michael Ashby (University of Cambridge, UK), Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier), (2009)

In-situ Electron Microscopy, (On-line Proceedings), MM Symposium, MRS Fall Meeting 2005, 1 volume, edited by Paulo J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin), Ian M. Robertson (University of Illinois), Gerhard Dehm (University of Leoben, Austria) and Hiroyasu Saka (Nagoya University, Japan).

Materials: Years 2000, edited by M.A. Fortes (IST, Portugal) and P.J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin), Instituto Superior Tecnico/Univ. Of Texas, 1st edition, 1 volume, 546 pages, Marco 2003, published by IST Press, English/Portuguese.

Investing In The Future: University-Industry Collaborations in Portugal and USA, edited by P.J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin), J. Tavares (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal), N. Vasconcelos (University of California at San Diego) and F. Veloso (Carnegie Mellon University), PAPS/ FLAD, Cambridge, MA, 1st edition, 161 pages, Maio 2003, published by Gradiva Publicacoes Limitada, Portuguese.

R.O. Sousa, I. Felde, P.J. Ferreira, A.M. Deus, L.M.M. Ribeiro, “Inverse Methodology for Estimating the Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Duplex Stainless Steel Casting”. In: Silva L. (eds) Materials Design and Applications II. Advanced Structured Materials, vol 98. Springer, Cham, (2019)

S. Rasouli, P.J. Ferreira, “Understanding the Stability of Nanoscale Catalysts in PEM Fuel Cells by Identical Location TEM”, In: Nakashima N. (eds) Nanocarbons for Energy Conversion: Supramolecular Approaches. Nanostructure Science and Technology. Springer, Cham, (2019)

Pedro Costa and Paulo Ferreira, “In situ TEM of Carbon Nanotubes”, “Advances in Transmission Electron Microscopy”, published by Springer Verlag, pp. 207-247 (2015)

Rajasekhara,L.P Karjalainen, A. Kyrolainen and P. J. Ferreira, “Development of Stainless Steels with Superior Mechanical Properties: A Correlation Between Structure and Properties in Nanoscale/ Sub-micron Grained Austenitic Stainless Steel”, “Advanced Steels: The Recent Scenario in Steel Science and Technology”, published by Springer, editors are Yuqing Weng, Han Dong, Yong Gan, pp. 371-384 (2011).

Rajasekhara,L.P Karjalainen, A. Kyrolainen and P. J. Ferreira, “Nano/Sub micron Grained Austenitic Steels”, “Advances in Stainless Steels” published by Universities Press, India, editors are Baldev Raj, K B S Rao, T Jayakumar, PV Sivaprasad, Saroja Saibaba and P. Shankar, pp. 221-233 (2009).

J. Ferreira, “High Tc Superconductor Materials”, Materials: Years 2000, pp. 269-275, edited by M.A.Fortes and P.J. Ferreira, Instituto Superior Tecnico/Univ. Of Texas, 1st edition, 1 volumes, 546 pages, March 2003, published by IST Press, Portuguese.

J. Ferreira, J. Tavares, N. Vasconcelos, F. Veloso and Pedro Conceicao, “Investir No Futuro: Relacoes Universidade Industria”, Investing In The Future: University-Industry Collaborations In Portugal And USA, pp. 11-33, PAPS/ FLAD, Cambridge, MA, 1st edition, 161 pages, Maio 2003, published by Gradiva Publicacoes Limitada, Portuguese.

J. Ferreira, “Nanotechnology”, Engineering In Portugal During The 20th Century, edited by Jose Brito, Manuel Heitor and Maria Rollo, published by Dom Quixote, Vol.1, pp. 575-585, 2004.

J.Ferreira, “Superconductor Materials”, Nova Activa Multimedia Encyclopedia, Lexicultural Press, pp. 218-219, 2004,

J. Ferreira, “Ferromagnetic and Paramagnetic Materials”, Nova Activa Multimedia Encyclopedia, Lexicultural Press, pp. 220-221, 2004.

J. Ferreira, “Nanotechnology”, Nova Activa Multimedia Encyclopedia, Lexicultural Press, pp. 230-231, 2004.

PLENARY, KEYNOTE, INVICTED LECTURES

“Understanding Nanoparticles by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, CQE Days, National Academy of Sciences, Lisbon, May 30, 2019

“The Science of the Small: Understanding the Thermal Behavior of Nanoparticles”, Brazilian Congress of Microscopy, Buzios, Brazil, June 4-7, 2017

“The Science of the Small: Understanding the World of Nanoparticles”, Nano Monterrey 2015, International Forum, Monterrey, Mexico, October 2015

“Seeing Small: Understanding Catalysts Nanoparticles in Fuel Cells by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Nanotech France 2019, Paris, France, June 26-28, 2019

“Understanding the Surface Structure of Li1-x[Mn2]O4 by Aberration-Corrected STEM and EELS”, NanoPT, Lisbon, Portugal, February 7-9, 2018

“Understanding the Surface of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathodes with Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM and EELS”, Hyceltec 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 19-23, 2017

“Seeing is Believing: The Beauty of In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy” 50th Anniversary of the Portuguese Society of Microscopy, Porto, Portugal, June 29-30 2016

“The Science of the Small: Understanding Coalescence of Nanoparticles by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, International Conference “NanoSpain 2016”, Logrono, Spain, March 2016.

“Understanding the Atomic Structure of Li-Mn Based Spinel Cathodes with Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM”, International Conference “TNT2015, Trends in Nanotechnology”, Toulouse, France, September 2015

“Nanotechnology: Science or Fiction?”, International Conference on “Sustainable Intelligent Manufacturing”, Lisbon, Portugal, June 26-29, 2013

“Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steels”; 7th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing, Oulu, Finland, June 16-19, 2013

“Nano/Submicron Austenitic Stainless Steels with Superior Mechanical Properties”; Conference “International Conference on Advanced Steels 2010”, Guilin, China, November 2010.

“Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steels”, International Symposium on “Advances in Stainless Steels 2007”, Chennai, India, April 9-11, 2007.

In-situ and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Applied to Nanomaterials”, International Conference “Global Materials for the XXI Century: Challenges to Academia and Industry, “, Porto, Portugal, April 1-4, 2007.

“Understanding LiMn2O4 by Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM and Differential Phase Contrast”,12thAsia-Pacific Microscopy Conference, 3-7 February, Hyderabad, India, 2020

“Understanding LiMn2O4 by Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM and Differential Phase Contrast”, Conference on Electronic Materials and Applications, American Ceramic Society, January 22-24, Orlando, Florida, USA, 2020

“On the Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected TEM Study”, 4th Israeli Fuel Cells Consortium Workshop, Tel Aviv, Israel, October 28-29, 2019

Seminar, “Understanding Nanoparticles by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Bar-Ilan University, Tel Aviv, Israel, October 30, 2019

“Understanding Nanoparticles by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, École Polytechnique, Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, Paris, June 27, 2019

“On the Degradation of Nanocatalysts in PEM Fuel Cells: An Identical Location AberrationCorrected TEM Study, “6th International Congress on Microscopy and Spectroscopy”, Oludeniz, Turkey, May 12-18, 2019

“On the Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected TEM Study”, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Connecticut, January 25, 2019

“A Novel Approach to Identify the Ionomer Phase in PEM Fuel Cells by EELS”, Brazil MRS Meeting, September 16-20, 2018, Natal, Brazil

“On the Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected TEM Study”, Electron Microscopy of Nanostructures ELMINA2018 Conference, August 27–29, 2018, Belgrade, SERBIA

“Understanding Amorphous Mesoporous Silica Superstructures by Aberration-Corrected STEM”, XXVII International Materials Research Congress, August 19-24, 2018, Cancun, Mexico

“On the Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected TEM Study”, XXVII International Materials Research Congress, August 19-24, 2018, Cancun, Mexico

“Understanding the Surface Structure of Li1-x[Mn2]O4 by Aberration Corrected STEM and EELS”, MRS Spring Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, April 2-6, 2018.

“Seeing Small: There is Plenty Our Eyes Can’t See”, FCCN Meeting, INL, Braga, Portugal, April 12, 2018

Seminar, “Understanding Nanomaterials by TEM”, Paul Sherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland, February 23, 2018.

Seminar, “Nanotechnology and the 4th Industrial Revolution”, Congress of the National Association of Engineers, Coimbra, Portugal, November 23, 2017

Seminar, “Seeing Small: Enabling New Discoveries in Nanomaterials Through Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Workshop on Advanced Electron Microscopy of Materials, Santiago de Compustela, Spain, October 30, 2017

“Seeing Small: There is Plenty Our Eyes Can’t See”, INL Summit, Braga, Portugal, October 19, 2017

Seminar, “Seeing Small: Enabling New Discoveries in Nanomaterials Through Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Beijing University, Beijing, China, August 28, 2017

Seminar, “Seeing Small: Enabling New Discoveries in Nanomaterials Through Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, National University of Singapore, Singapore, July 24, 2017

Seminar, “Thermal Behavior of Nanoparticles”, University of Tras-dos-Montes, Vila Real, Portugal, May 24, 2017

Seminar, “Thermal Behavior of Nanoparticles”, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain, May 11, 2017

GROUP LEADER

Paulo Ferreira

THE TEAM

Enrique Carbo-Argibay
Staff Researcher

Fátima Zorro
Ph.D Student

Rafael Ferreira
Ph.D Student

Francisco Rosário de Figueiredo
Ph.D Student

Ricardo Sousa
Ph.D Student

Bruno Oliveira
Ph.D Student

SUPERVISION OUTSIDE INL

Cinthya Blois
Ph.D Student (UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)

FORMER TEAM

Daniel Groom
TEM Image Processing Engineer at Brookhaven National Lab.

Justyna Grzonka
Postdoc researcher at University of Cadiz

Cristiana Filipa Almeida Alves
Researcher at IPN

Mohamed Hassine
Research Fellow in the Central School of Lyon

Charles Amos

Sebastian Velasco
Postdoc at Carnegie Mellon University

Kang Yu
Process Engineer at Applied Materials

Szu-Tung Hu
Engineer at Intel

VISITING SCHOLARS

Beatriz Canabarro,
PhD Student (URFJ, BR)

DESCRIPTION

The Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group focus on the study of the atomic structure, atomic composition and defect behavior of nanomaterials, through in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), aberration-corrected TEM/STEM, precession electron diffraction and EELS/EDS techniques. In particular, the group is interested in understanding the relationships between the atomic structure, composition and the properties of nanomaterials, and the fundamental underlying mechanisms of structural and property changes induced by crystalline defects. The material systems of interest include battery materials, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, catalyst nanoparticles and 2D materials.

HIGHLIGHTS

On the 10th and 11th of October the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group was attending the Mission 10.000: Batteries Conference 2019 at International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal.

Charles Amos introduced a welcome message related with “The European Battery Landscape” and Cristiana Alves had an oral presentation about: “Compositional Mapping of LiNixCoyMnzO2 Cathode Materials”.

Mission-10000-batteriesed-768x681The Mission 10.000: Batteries brings together researchers, innovators, and policy-makers to discuss the current and future trends in battery storage to help position the EU as a major player in the future battery storage market, a multi-billion euro market that is set to grow rapidly in the near future.

From: https://nanogateway.eu/en/mission-batteries/

On the 20th of September two members and the group leader of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the UT Austin Portugal Programme conference 2019 in University of Minho, Portugal.utaustin1-768x529

From the 11th to the 13th of September four members and the group leader of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the Microscopy at the Frontiers of Science 2019 conference in Granada, Spain.

mfs-300x245Microscopy at the frontiers os science congress series (MFS 2019) is a joint meeting of SME and SPMicros. The conference offers to microscopists and professionals from Portugal, Spain and beyond the opportunity to exchange ideas and for commercial companies to show their latest innovations in advanced light and electron microscopy imaging, sample preparation, image analysis, among others.

From 1st to the 5th of September three members of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the EUROMAT 2019 conference in Stockholm, Sweden.

Charles Amos, Ricardo Sousa and Bruno Oliveira presented “Understanding the Cubic-to-Tetragonal Transition of Mn3O4 as a Surface Layer of Li1-x[Mn2]O4”, “Microstructural characterization of TiC-white cast iron composite fabricated by in situ method” and “Grain size and orientation of nanocrystalline copper films”, respectively.

EUROMAT is the premier international congress in the field of materials science and technology in Europe. It explores topics as functional materials, structural materials, processing, characterization and modelling, energy and environment, materials for healthcare, raw materials, bio-based materials…

From 4th to the 8th of August two members of the Atomic Structure-Composition of Materials group were attending the Microscopy & Microanalysis 2019 conference in Portland, Oregon.

Sebastian Velasco and Charles Amos presented “Understanding the Structure of LiMn2O4 by Differential Phase Contrast” and “Effect of Chemical Treatment on the Surface Structure of Li1-x[Mn2]O4”, respectively.

Microscopy & Microanalysis 2019 is a microscopy conference with over 1200 platform, poster sessions, workshops, tutorials, networking events and the world’s largest annual microscopy exhibition, which showcases the latest in microscopy instrumentation and accessories.

mammtest1.jpg

PROJECTS

Researcher: Dr. Sebastian Calderon (INL)

Partners: CEB and CFUM-UP at UMINHO and Food Processing group at INL

Funding: Portuguese Foundation for Science – FCT and EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020, scheme COFUND – Co-funding of Regional, National and International Programmes, under Grant Agreement 713640

Bimetallic Nanoparticles a) Phase contrast Image, b) FFT of a), c) HAADF STEM image d) EDX spectrum images.

Bimetallic Nanoparticles a) Phase contrast Image, b) FFT of a), c) HAADF STEM image d) EDX spectrum images.

The development of materials sensitive to oxygen and able to detect it, is one of the main aims in the packaging industry, even 2% residual oxygen concentration may alter food organoleptic properties. The presence of oxygen in the packaging, as well as the permeation of oxygen during storage is avoided by using oxygen scavenging materials and controlled by using packaging materials with low permeability to gases. Most of the commercial active agents used on packaging materials are dispersed in the film matrix or/and used as sachet, cards, and self-adhesive labels that can lead to an inefficient activity of the active compound. Thus, the incorporation of the oxygen scavengers in the packing materials avoids the necessity of additional components. However, the use of these materials do not give information of the level of oxygen inside the packaging or avoid the microbial growth during storage that can happen in the presence of oxygen, and thus acting as intelligent and active packaging.

This project addresses the development of a new generation of active and intelligent packaging film for foods through the dispersion of nano-sized multifunctional particles in a bio-polymeric matrix.  The enhanced oxygen absorption capacity, antimicrobial properties and changes in colour as a function of oxygen absorption will provide the packaging material with the multifunctional characteristics required to enlarge the shelf-life of the food.

Researcher: Dr. Cristiana Alves

Funding: EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation H2020, scheme COFUND – Co-funding of Regional, National and International Programmes, under Grant Agreement 713640

A recent BP Statistical Review of the World [1] and BP Energy Outlook [2] reported an increase in oil consumption of about 1.6 million barrels per day in which 2/3 is attributed to the automobile sector.  The fast combustion of traditional fossil fuels represents an energy crisis threat along with severe pollutants emissions and greenhouse effect do not match the requirements of a growing global economy.

EDS map of LiNi0.76Co0.1Mn0.14O2 particle provided by Dr. Arumugam Manthiram (UT Austin).

EDS map of LiNi0.76Co0.1Mn0.14O2 particle provided by Dr. Arumugam Manthiram (UT Austin).

In this context, the new generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs), which are expected to exhibit light weight, high energy density, long cycling life and environmental friendliness, will be used in electronic applications and as a green-power source for electric vehicles. However, LIBs electrochemical performance is determined by the structural and chemical composition of the electrode materials and electrolyte, more specifically of the cathode material. In particular, there are major concerns related with battery duration, charging rate and safety issues. The new LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NMC) cathode exhibits similar specific capacity and operating voltage compared with the LiCoO2 cathode used in the first LIB battery commercialized by SONY, while is less toxic

The objective of the COFUND project is to fundamentally understand the phase and chemical composition distribution within micrometric polycrystalline LiNixCoyMnzO2 (NMC) particles that compose the cathode side of commercial Li-ion batteries. In particular, this project will determine the changes in phase, texture orientation and chemical distribution during charge/discharge to be able to enhance the synthesis of these materials, reduce structural instabilities and improve electrochemical performance. The strategy to obtain in-depth structural and chemical information of polycrystalline NMC cathode materials, in particular phase and composition mapping is to use precession electron diffraction coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope.

References:
[1] Petroleum B. BP Statistical Review of the World Energy 2017 edition. 2017.
[2] Petroleum B. BP Energy Outlook 2017 edition. 2017.

Researcher: Fátima Zorro (IST, Lisboa)

Supervisor: Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

As the demand for developing environmentally friendly and energy efficient technologies increases, it is critical to devise processes for the production of materials which match those demands at lower costs. In this context, flash sintering (FS) can overcome conventional sintering issues, leading to a reduction of the processing time from days/hours to min/seconds, while decreasing the operation temperatures. Among the candidate materials suitable for flash-sintering, this project focuses on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), because it is widely used for fuel cells, one of energy technologies that is critical for public transportation and the automotive industry. In this work, nanoparticles of YSZ will be deposited in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid, to simulate in real time the process of flash-sintering. In particular, the nanoparticles will be subjected to different electric fields and processing temperatures, while the mechanisms can be monitored in real time, inside an advanced TEM.

The main goal of this project is to investigate the flash-sintering process of Zirconia and YSZ nanoparticles by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. In particular, the research work has the following objectives:

  1. To understand the fundamental nano/atomic mechanisms driving the flash-sintering process of Zirconia and YSZ nanoparticles
  2. To understand the relationship between particle size/geometry, temperature and applied electric field on the kinetics of sintering.
  3. Monitor the flash-sintering process of Zirconia and YSZ nanoparticles in real time by applying temperature and electrical field in-situ in the transmission electron microscope
  4. To correlate the flash-sintering behavior of Zirconia and YSZ nanoparticles regarding their performance and properties.

Researcher: Rafael Ferreira (IST, Lisboa)

Supervisor: Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Two-dimensional (2D) materials hold much promise for the next generation of electronic devices, even for such exotic applications like quantum computing. However, the extremely complex construction and the potentially large impact of defects present in the constituent layers are challenges that must be faced to make envisioned technologies into commercially viable options.

The state of current production methods then presents a considerable obstacle to the development of 2D material-based technologies, as defects are inevitably introduced during the synthesis and transfer processes, and the production of large-area crystals is still challenging. On the other hand, some defects may give rise to effects that can be useful for certain applications and so the formation of these must be controlled. Consequently, investigating the formation and influence of defects is a critical facet of 2D materials research.

To answer these challenges, aberration‑corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) can provide sub-angstrom spatial resolution [1] to locate and identify substitutional defects in 2D materials [2], while atomic-level characterisation of the electronic structure is made possible by employing electron energy‑loss spectroscopy (EELS) [3-5]. Yet, the functional properties of any material are fundamentally determined by the electromagnetic fields and the associated distribution of atomic charges within the structure. A direct measurement of these features would therefore grant a fundamental understanding on how localised deformations caused by defects impact material systems as a whole.

The ability to probe the charge density is therefore highly desired. In this regard, differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging [6,7], an electron microscopy technique going through a rapid development, is sensitive to the intrinsic electromagnetic fields of a sample and can make use of the atomic resolution of STEM. Additionally, for non-magnetic, weakly scattering specimens such as many 2D materials, DPC can be directly related to the projected electric field, establishing these structures as the ideal objects of study.

Thus, this work will implement the capabilities of DPC to examine the atomic charge distributions and defect-induced redistributions in 2D materials that hold potential for quantum electronics, as well as structures and devices in which they are used. This investigation will be complemented by inspection of the electronic transport properties with in‑situ STEM-DPC observations, where a bias can be applied to the specimen while changes in conductive behaviour are monitored in real time.

References

  • Sawada, H., et al. Resolving 45-pm-separated Si-Si atomic columns with aberration‑corrected STEM. Microscopy 64, 213−217 (2015).
  • Krivanek, O. L., et al. Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy. Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).
  • Zhou, W., et al. Direct determination of the chemical bonding of individual impurities in graphene. Rev. Lett. 109, 206803 (2012).
  • Ramasse, Q. M., et al. Probing the bonding and electronic structure of single atom dopants in graphene with electron energy loss spectroscopy. Lett. 13, 4989–4995 (2013).
  • Suenaga, K. & Koshino, M. Atom-by-atom spectroscopy at graphene edge. Nature 468, 1088–1090 (2010).
  • Dekkers, N. H. & de Lang, H. Differential phase contrast in a STEM. Optik 41, 452−456 (1974).
  • Shibata, N., et al. Direct Visualization of Local Electromagnetic Field Structures by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Chem. Res. 50, 1502−1512 (2017).

Researcher: Francisco Figueiredo (Univ. of Porto)
Supervisors: Prof. Sandra Ribeiro (Univ. of Porto) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Funding: Portuguese Foundation for Science (FCT), PhD fellowship

Structural analysis of Ataxin-3 aggregation pathway. SDS-resistant elongated mature fibrils form by pathogenic Ataxin-3 visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cartoon representation of Ataxin-3 globular Josephin Domain (JD) involved in the first Atx3 aggregation step. JD aggregation prone region highlighted in red

Structural analysis of Ataxin-3 aggregation pathway. SDS-resistant elongated mature fibrils form by pathogenic Ataxin-3 visualized by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cartoon representation of Ataxin-3 globular Josephin Domain (JD) involved in the first Atx3 aggregation step. JD aggregation prone region highlighted in red

Ataxin-3 (Atx3) is one of nine proteins containing an expandable polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat segment that are associated with late-onset human neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregation of the non-pathological and polyQ-expanded Atx3 is well characterized and is critically dependent on early self-assembly events modulated by its globular Josephin domain. PolyQ expansion beyond a certain threshold elicits a second (polyQ-dependent) aggregation step that is critical to mature fibril generation. Biophysical studies unveiled the Atx3 multistep aggregation pathway, but structural data on the nature of the intermediates formed is still lacking. To uncover the structural aspects of Atx3 aggregation intermediates, advanced electron microscopy and optical microscopy approaches will be used.

Researcher: Ricardo Sousa (Univ. of Porto)
Supervisors: Prof. Laura Ribeiro (Univ. of Porto) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Funding: Ferespe, Fundição de Ferro e Aço Lda

Cast duplex stainless steels (DSS) have been applied in highly corrosive conditions, such as marine environments (oil and gas), chemical and petrochemical industry, as well as pulp and paper industry. The superior performance of these material is achieved by a balanced microstructure, consisting of approximately equal amounts of ferrite (α) and austenite (γ) in the as-heat treated condition. In terms of mechanical properties, the balanced microstructure is beneficial to obtain high toughness and high strength, when compared to austenitic stainless steels with same corrosion resistance.

In the most severe applications, DSS grades with high Cr, Ni, Mo and N are required, to ensure the best performance in terms of pitting, stress and inter-crystalline corrosion. Among these DSS, the so-called super (SDSS) and hyper grades (HDSS) contain even higher Cr and N contents, when compared with other DSS grades. As a consequence, these grades are prone to the formation of detrimental secondary phases, in particular sigma (σ) and chi (χ). The destabilization of duplex microstructure is more pronounced on thick areas of casting components. The primary objective of this project is to characterize among several different secondary phases that may form during casting of large DSS components and to establish kinetic models for their formation, by means of correlate the information collected on optical microscopy, as well the scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques.

BSE-SEM image of DSS containing α, γ, χ- and σ-phases, ascending ordered by brightness levels. On right side, the distribution of principal thermal residual stresses. The maximum stresses are concentrated on interfaces between α (lower coefficient of thermal expansion) and the γ, χ- and σ-phases areas.

BSE-SEM image of DSS containing α, γ, χ- and σ-phases, ascending ordered by brightness levels. On right side, the distribution of principal thermal residual stresses. The maximum stresses are concentrated on interfaces between α (lower coefficient of thermal expansion) and the γ, χ- and σ-phases areas.

Currently, a methodology to identify χ- from σ-phases has been presented, which allow us to measure their volume percent. Therefore, volume percent measurements are critical data to establish the kinetic models of each phase, to tailor the appropriate cooling cycle. The methodology is based on matching between different the grey levels of χ- from σ-phases on BSE-SEM images with semi-quantitative chemical analysis with aid of EDS. Therefore, the semi-quantitative analysis on SEM are compared with measurements by means of TEM-EDS. In fact, TEM plays a key role on characterization methodology, due to electron diffraction capability in order to unequivocally identify χ- and σ-phases. Finally, as the identification is complete, an image segmentation procedure can be applied to BSE-SEM images.

Apart from the kinetics description of secondary phases formation, being able to detect and identify all the phases that may be present on DSS castings allows us to study how their distribution can affect the magnitude and gradient of thermal residual stresses. A finite element method has been used, where BSE-SEM images are inputs and it is possible to assign the elastic properties (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ration) and coefficient of thermal expansion to individual phases. The application of a thermal gradient, the software calculates maps of distribution of principle stresses. In fact, due to significant differences in terms of coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal residual stresses arise and interfaces acts as concentration areas of stresses.

Researcher: Dr. Charles Amos
Supervisors: Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

The surface of materials is one of the most important aspects of electrochemistry. The surface is where all critical charge transfers and catalytic interactions occur. For Li-ion batteries, the surface of the electrodes dictates the reactivity with the electrolyte, the ability for Li-ions to shuttle between the bulk and the electrolyte, and the rate at which the ions can transfer, all of which has an effect on rate-capability and cyclability. LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) are both promising cathode materials with high energy density and high rate capability, but both are plagued with cyclability problems based on surface effects. In the LMO system the main contributor to cycling degradation is the Mn disproportionation reaction (2Mn3+ = Mn2+ + Mn4+) which creates soluble Mn2+ that is lost to solution. In the LNM system, the redox-active Ni reacts with the electrolyte at the surface of the cathode leading to cathode electrolyte interphase (CEI) formation, which reduces cyclability by creating an increasingly thicker interphase that slows Li diffusion to and from the cathode. Between LMO and LNM, LNM is the more desirable cathode material due to the higher voltage (~4.7 V vs Li0/+ as compared with ~4 V vs Li0/+ for LMO) of the Ni2+/3+ and Ni3+/4+ redox couple with equivalent capacity.

HAADF STEM image of LMO viewed along the [110] zone axis. A blue diamond, indicative of the LiMn2O4 cubic spinel structure, is shown in the bulk while a Mn3O4 phase (red diamond) is visible at the surface. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the original full image is included to indicate the crystal.

HAADF STEM image of LMO viewed along the [110] zone axis. A blue diamond, indicative of the LiMn2O4 cubic spinel structure, is shown in the bulk while a Mn3O4 phase (red diamond) is visible at the surface. A fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the original full image is included to indicate the crystal.

Since LMO has fewer cations than LNM while still containing the cubic spinel structure, we first studied the LMO cathode system using a combination of high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) (Figure) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to confirm the underlying spinel structure, and we have found, in as-processed LMO, a surface structure composed of Mn3O4 and a lithium-rich Li1+xMn2O4 subsurface layer which occurs as a result of surface reconstruction[1]. We have also identified that oxygen deficiency is the mechanism by which the surface reconstruction occurs.

This research project seeks to study the surface of LNM using a similar approach as that used for the study of LMO and identify the role that Ni plays in the surface reconstruction of LNM. INL is the ideal place to study LNM with their image and probe corrected FEI Titan TEMs, which have HAADF STEM  and EELS capabilities. We will use HAADF STEM techniques to identify atomic surface structures and EELS to identify Ni and Mn oxidation states. With the collected information, inferences will be made as to why and how the surfaces of these spinel cathode materials reconstruct and conclusions may be made about their electrochemical performance once inside a battery.

[1] Nano Lett., 2016, 16 (5), pp 2899–2906

Researcher: PhD student Steve Hu (Univ. of Texas at Austin)
Supervisors: Dr. Shreyas Rajasekhara (Intel), Dr. Khallid Hatar (Sandia National Laboratories) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Funding: Sandia National Laboratories

The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline thin films are strongly related to their grain size according to the Hall-Petch equation. However, in materials with nano grain sizes, rapid and abnormal grain growth may occur when subjected to heating during manufacture or usage, which will decrease their strength. In addition, as grain growth occurs, the local texture may evolve, which also affects the mechanical properties. In this context, the goal of this work is to develop a thorough study on how grain growth and local texture of copper and nickel thin films may be affected by the deposition method, substrate, film thickness and annealing temperature.

Orientation maps combined with reliability maps. (a) as-deposited 30 nm films and annealed for (b) 20min, (c) 40 min, (d) 60 min and (e) 80min. (f) as-deposited 120nm film and annealed for (g) 20min (h) 40 min, (i) 60min and (j) 80 min

Orientation maps combined with reliability maps. (a) as-deposited 30 nm films and annealed for (b) 20min, (c) 40 min, (d) 60 min and (e) 80min. (f) as-deposited 120nm film and annealed for (g) 20min (h) 40 min, (i) 60min and (j) 80 min

In order to determine the grain size and texture in nano grain size materials, traditional techniques such as Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) can no longer provide the resolution required. Therefore, a technique called Precession Electron Diffraction Microscopy, which provides a spatial resolution of 3-5nm and minimizes dynamical diffraction effects in TEM, will be performed. This technique will allow us to investigate the grain orientation, average grain size and grain boundary information in a fully automated fashion. Furthermore, to improve the Precession analysis, a newly developed method will be used where the diffraction patterns are filtered for noise threshold, spot enhance loop, gamma, spot radius and softening loop. In this fashion, the reliability of the results will be improved. Finally, the orientation images acquired after indexing will then exported to the TexSEM Laboratories Orientation Imaging (TSL OIMTM) software for further filtering.

Two sets of samples will be studied by Precession Electron Diffraction in TEM. The first set of samples correspond to nickel and copper thin films with thicknesses of 30nm and 120 nm deposited on NaCl crystals at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and sputtering. The second set of samples are copper thin films with thicknesses of 30nm, 120nm and 900 nm deposited on Ta/SiO2/Si substrates by using sputtering. The first set of samples will be subjected to an annealing temperature of 350 C for various times to monitor the evolution of grain size and texture. The second set of samples will be subjected to two treatments of 700 C and 900 C and three different times.

In summary, this work will enable us to correlate between grain size, local texture, deposition method, substrate, film thickness and annealing temperature in Ni and Cu nanocrystalline thin films.

Researcher: Cinthya Blois (UFRJ, Brazil)
Supervisors: Prof. Paula Mendes Jardim (UFRJ, Brazil) and Prof. Paulo Ferreira (INL, Braga)

Funding: CNPq and CAPES

With the advancements of nanotechnology, particles can be synthesized in a controlled way, for example with crystallographic morphologies/faces and desired sizes, in order to improve the performance of these materials in a specific applications. Photocatalysis is a promissing technology application in a wide variety of chemical and environmental technologies, for example in the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and to remove pollutants on liquid and gaseous environmental. In this technique semiconductors are use as photocatalysts and their photocatalytic activity and the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction are influenced by the crystalline structure, defects and impurities, surface morphology and interface (photocatalyst/environment), among other factors. In this context, nanostructured TiO2 has been prominent in photocatalytic applications where it is a crystal structure, size (surface area) and morphology (exposed facets) are important. The materials studied in this work are synthesized through calcination of trititanate nanotubes (TTNT) previous synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal route. The morphology of the synthesized materials does not always assume a form of equilibrium of its natural phase and is not completely know, being this an important characteristic for a photocatalytic activity.

TEM image from one particle of TiO2 nanorod synthesized at 550°C calcination of TTNT (a) with FFT square (b) and a HRTEM image of the same particle showing two planes and angle between them (c).

TEM image from one particle of TiO2 nanorod synthesized at 550°C calcination of TTNT (a) with FFT square (b) and a HRTEM image of the same particle showing two planes and angle between them (c).

The higher the surface energy of the exposed faces of the material, the greater its photocatalytic activity, consequently better results of photocatalysis. The relationship between agent of a police material and its nanostructure can be well elucidated through different electron microscopy techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a more complete technique for a nanoscale characterization of crystal structure and morphology. From this, grain size, morphology, crystallography, chemical composition, phase determination, particle coalescence, etc. can be obtained. The main objective of the project is to use TEM advanced techniques to characterize TiO2-based nanomaterials synthesized from post-heat treatment of TTNTs, allowing a study and understanding of the entire synthesis process, such as nanomaterials and correlating the morphology of each nanomaterial with their photocatalytic properties.

PUBLICATION LIST

  • 2021

    Rúben F Santos, Bruno Oliveira, Alexandre Chícharo, Pedro Alpuim, Paulo J Ferreira, Sónia Simões, Filomena Viana, Manuel F Vieira

    Seedless Cu Electroplating on Co-W Thin Films in Low pH Electrolyte: Early Stages of Formation Journal Article

    Nanomaterials 2021, 11 , pp. 1914, 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Sergey Tkachev, Miguel Monteiro, João Santos, Ernesto Placidi, Mohamed Ben Hassine,Pedro Marques, Paulo Ferreira, Pedro Alpuim and Andrea Capasso

    Environmentally-Friendly Graphene Inks for Touch Screen Sensors Journal Article

    Advanced Functional Materials, pp. 2103287, 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Melina Zysler, Tal Klingbell, Charles D. Amos, Paulo Fereira and David Zitoun

    Carbon Supported Pt-Ni Octahedral Electrocatalysts as a Model to Follow Nickel Corrosion and Particle Detachment Journal Article

    Catalysis Science and Technology, In Press , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    S. Calderon, R. Ribeiro. P.J. Ferreira

    Manganese Migration in Li1-xMn2O4 Cathode Materials Journal Article

    Ultramicroscopy, 225 , pp. 113285 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Kumaraguru, Swami; Gu, Wenbin; Kukreja, Ratandeep; Yu, Kang; Groom, Daniel; Ferreira, Paulo

    High-Current Density Durability of Pt/C and PtCo/C Catalysts at Similar Particle Sizes in PEMFCs Journal Article

    Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 168 (2), pp. 024519 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    A Castro and I Carvalho and L Marques and P J Ferreira and A Cavaleiro and S Carvalho and S Calderon

    Galvanic Oxidation of Bimetallic Zn-Fe Nanoparticles for Oxygen Scavenging Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 537 , 2021.

    Links | BibTeX

    Eliran R. Hamo, Ramesh K. Singh, John C. Douglin, Sian Chen, Mohamed Ben Hassine, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, Shanfu Lu, Haining Wang, Paulo J. Ferreira, Brian A. Rosen, Dario R. Dekel

    Carbide-Supported PtRu Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction in Alkaline Electrolyte Journal Article

    ACS Catalysis, 11 , pp. 932−947 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Marcel S. Claro, Justyna Grzonka, Nicoleta Nicoara, Paulo J. Ferreira, Sascha Sadewasser

    Wafer‐Scale Fabrication of 2D β‐In2Se3 Photodetectors Journal Article

    Advanced Optical Materials, 9 , pp. 2001034 , 2021.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2020

    Alexandre F. Carvalho, António J.S. Fernandes, Mohamed Ben Hassineb, Paulo Ferreira, Elvira Fortunato, Florinda M. Costa

    Millimeter-sized few-layer suspended graphene membranes Journal Article

    Applied Materials Today, 21 , pp. 100879, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    S A Salehizadeh and I Carvalho and R Serra and P J Ferreira and A Cavaleiro and S Carvalho

    Role of Au incorporation in the electrochemical behavior of Ag/a: C nanocomposite coatings Journal Article

    Surface and Coatings Technology, 401 (126240), 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

    Lixiang Liu, Jiawei Wang, Steffen Oswald, Junping Hu, Hongmei Tang, Jinhui Wang, Yin Yin, Qiongqiong Lu, Lifeng Liu, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Shaozhuan Huang, Haiyun Dong, Libo Ma, Feng Zhu, Minshen Zhu, Oliver G. Schmidt

    Decoding of Oxygen Network Distortion in a Layered High-Rate Anode by In Situ Investigation of a Single Microelectrode Journal Article

    ACS Nano. ACS, 14 (9), pp. 11753–11764, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Yun Huang and Kang Yu and Huaizhi Li and Kai Xu and Zexi Liang and Debora Walker and Paulo Ferreira and Peer Fischer and Donglei (Emma) Fan

    Scalable Fabrication of Molybdenum Disulfide Nanostructures and its Assembly Journal Article

    Advanced Materials, 32 (43), 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

    F Fernandes and S Calderon and P J Ferreira and A Cavaleiro and J.C. Oliveira

    Low peak power deposition regime in HiPIMS: Deposition of hard and dense nanocomposite Ti-Si-N films by DOMS without the need of energetic bombardment Journal Article

    Surface and Coatings Technology, 397 , 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

    Katariina Pussi, Bernardo Barbiellini, Koji Ohara, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Yury V. Kolen’ko, Arun Bansil, Saeed Kamali

    Structural properties of PbTe quantum dots revealed by high-energy x-ray diffraction Journal Article

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 33 (48), 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Guangchao Zheng, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Elisa González-Romero, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos

    Pd-Au heteropentamers: Selective growth of Au on Pd tetrahedral nanoparticles with enhanced electrocatalytic activity Journal Article

    Crystal Growth & Design. ACS, 20 (9), pp. 5863–5867, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Carlos Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier Fernández-Lodeiro, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Carlos Lodeiro, Jorge Pérez-Juste, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos

    The versatility of Fe(II) in the synthesis of uniform citrate-stabilized plasmonic nanoparticles with tunable size at room temperature Journal Article

    Nano Research. Springer, 13 , pp. 2351–2355, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Katariina Pussi, Juan Gallo, Koji Ohara, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Yury V. Kolen’ko, Bernardo Barbiellini, Arun Bansil, Saeed Kamali

    Structure of manganese oxide nanoparticles extracted via pair distribution functions Journal Article

    Condensed Matter, 5 (1), pp. 19, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Almeida C F Alves and Calderon S V. and P J Ferreira and L Marques and S Carvalho

    Passivation and dissolution mechanisms in ordered anodic tantalum oxide nanostructures Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 513 , pp. 145575, 2020, ISSN: 0169-4332.

    Links | BibTeX

    Liliana P. L. Gonçalves, David Benjamin Christensen, Maria Meledina, Laura M. Salonen, Dmitri Y. Petrovykh, Enrique Carbó-Argibay, Juliana P. S. Sousa, Salomé Soares, Manuel Fernando Pereira, Søren Kegnæs, Yury V. Kolen'ko

    Selective formic acid dehydrogenation at low temperature over RuO2/COF pre-catalyst synthesized on the gram scale Journal Article

    Catalysis Science & Technology. RSC, 2020.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Tânia Ribeiro and Ana Sofia Rodriguesa and Sebastian Calderon and Alexandra Fidalgo and José L M Gonçalves and Vânia André and Teresa M Duarte and Paulo J Ferreira and José Paulo S Farinha and Carlos Baleizão

    Silica nanocarriers with user-defined precise diameters by controlled template self-assembly Journal Article

    Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 561 , pp. 609-619, 2020.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2019

    Zhiwei Fang and Ping Wu and Kang Yu and Yifan Li and Yue Zhu and Paulo J Ferreira and Yuanyue Liu and Guihua Yu

    Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Gel Electrocatalyst for Stable Acidic Water Oxidation Journal Article

    ACS Nano, 13 (12), pp. 14368-14376, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Yue Zhu and Yujin Ji and Zhengyu Ju and Kang Yu and Paulo Ferreira and Yuanyue Liu and Guihua Y.

    Ultrafast Intercalation Enabled by Strong Solvent–Host Interactions: Understanding Solvent Effect at the Atomic Level Journal Article

    Angewandte Chemie, 58 (48), pp. 17205-17209, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Jun Pan and Kang Yu and Hongzhi Mao and Lili Li and Yuchen Zhang and Yanlu Li and Paulo J.Ferreira and JianYang

    Crystalline Sb or Bi in amorphous Ti-based oxides as anode materials for sodium storage Journal Article

    Chemical Engineering Journal, 380 , pp. 122624, 2019, ISSN: 1385-8947.

    Links | BibTeX

    R O Sousa and P Lacerda and P J Ferreira and L M M Ribeiro

    On the Precipitation of Sigma and Chi Phases in a Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel Journal Article

    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 50 (10), pp. 4758–4778, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Pablo Tancredi and Luelc Souza da Costa and Sebastian Calderon and Oscar Moscoso-Londoño and Leandro M Socolovsky and Paulo J Ferreira and Diego Muraca and Daniela Zanchet and Marcelo Knobel

    Exploring the synthesis conditions to control the morphology of gold-iron oxide heterostructures Journal Article

    Nano Research, 12 (8), pp. 1781–1788, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Almeida C F Alves and L Marques and S.Calderon V. and P J Ferreira and D Schneider and A Cavaleiro and S Carvalho

    An experimental and theoretical study on the crystal structure and elastic properties of Ta1−xOx coatings Journal Article

    Surface and Coatings Technology, 364 , pp. 289-297, 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

    Vanegas H S P and Calderon S V and Alfonso J E O and Olaya J J F and P J Ferreira and S Carvalho

    Influence of silicon on the microstructure and the chemical properties of nanostructured ZrN-Si coatings deposited by means of pulsed-DC reactive magnetron sputtering Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 481 , 2019.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2018

    R O Sousa and I Felde and P J Ferreira and A M Deus and L M M Ribeiro

    Inverse Methodology for Estimating the Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Duplex Stainless Steel Casting Journal Article

    Materials Design and Applications II, 98 , pp. 59-69, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Somaye Rasouli and Deborah Myers and Nancy Kariuki and Kenji Higashida and Naotoshi Nakashima and Paulo Ferreira

    On the Electrochemical Degradation of Pt-Ni Nanocatalysts: An Identical Location Aberration-Corrected STEM Study Journal Article

    Nano Letters, 19 (1), 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    I Carvalho and S Ferdov and C Mansilla and S M Marques and Pastrana L M M. A. Cerqueira and M Henriques and C Gaidau and P Ferreira and S Carvalho

    Development of antimicrobial leather modified with Ag–TiO2 nanoparticles for footwear industry Journal Article

    Science and Technology of Materials, 20 , pp. 60-68, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    D J Groom and K Yu and S Rasouli and J Polarinakis and A C Bovik and P J Ferreira

    Automatic Segmentation of Inorganic Nanoparticles in BF TEM Micrographs Journal Article

    Ultramicroscopy, 194 , pp. 25-34, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    A AL-Rjoub and L Rebouta and P Costa and N P Barradas and E Alves and P J Ferreira and K Abderrafi and A.Matilainen and K.Pischow

    A design of selective solar absorber for high temperature applications Journal Article

    Solar Energy, 172 (2), pp. 177-183, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Calderon V S. and Ribeiro T. and Farinha J P S. and Baleizão C. and Ferreira P J.

    On the Structure of Amorphous Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles by Aberration-Corrected STEM Journal Article

    Small, 14 (40), 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    M C Gonçalves and R F P Pereira and P Ferreira and E Carbó-Argibay and J Catita and G Toquer and S C Nunes and Zea V de Bermudez

    Structuring of di-alkyl-urethanesils Journal Article

    Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    P.Paradiso and R.L.Santos and R.B.Horta and J.N.C.Lopes and P.J.Ferreira and R.Colaço

    Formation of nanocrystalline tobermorite in calcium silicate binders with low C/S ratio Journal Article

    Acta Materialia, 152 , pp. 7-15, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    M C Gonçalves and R F P Pereira and P Ferreira and E Carbó-Argibay and J Catita and G Toquer and S C Nunes and Zea V de Bermudez

    Structuring of di-alkyl-urethanesils Journal Article

    Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, 89 (1), pp. 205-215, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Sitaramanjaneva Mouli Thalluri and Jerome Borme and Kang Yu and Junyuan Xu and Isilda Amorim and Joao Gaspar and Liang Qiao and Paulo Ferreira and Pedro Alpuim and Lifeng Liu

    Conformal and continuous deposition of bifunctional cobalt phosphide layers on p-silicon nanowire arrays for improved solar hydrogen evolution Journal Article

    Nano Research, 11 (9), pp. 4823-4835, 2018, ISSN: 1998-0000.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    R K Ahluwalia and X Wang and J-K Peng1 and N N Kariuki and D J Myers and S Rasouli and P J Ferreira and Z Yang and A Martinez-Bonastre and D Fongalland and J Sharman

    Durability of De-Alloyed Platinum-Nickel Cathode Catalyst in Low Platinum Loading Membrane-Electrode Assemblies Subjected to Accelerated Stress Tests Journal Article

    Journal of Electrochemical Society, 165 (6), 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    C.Fernandes and S.Calderon V. and Lina F.Ballesteros and Miguel A Cerqueira and L.M.Pastrana and José A.Teixeira and P.J.Ferreira and S.Carvalho

    Carbon-based sputtered coatings for enhanced chitosan-based films properties Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 433 , pp. 689-695, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2017

    Minori Uchimiya and Joseph J Pignatello and Jason C White and Szu-Tung Hu and Paulo J Ferreira

    Structural Transformation of Biochar Black Carbon by C60 Superstructure: Environmental Implications Journal Article

    Scientific Reports, 7 (11787), 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Karalee Jarvis and Chih-Chieh Wang and Maria Varela and Raymond R Unocic and Arumugam Manthiram and Paulo J Ferreira†

    Surface Reconstruction in Li-Rich Layered Oxides of Li-Ion Batteries Journal Article

    Chemical Materials, 29 (18), pp. 7668-7674, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Minori Uchimiya and Joseph J Pignatello and Jason C White and Szu-Lung Hu and Paulo J Ferreira

    Surface Interactions between Gold Nanoparticles and Biochar Journal Article

    Scientific Reports, 7 (5027), 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Aleksandr P Kryshtal and Alexey Minenkov Paulo A J Ferreira

    Interfacial Kinetics in Nanosized Au/Ge Films: an in situ TEM Study Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 409 , pp. 343-349, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Le Xin and Fan Yang and Jian Xie and Zhiwei Yang and Nancy N Kariuki and Deborah J Myers and Jui-Kun Peng and Xiaohua Wang and Rajesh K Ahluwalia and Kang Yu and Paulo J Ferreira and Alex Martinez Bonastre and Dash Fongalland and Jonathan Sharmanf

    Enhanced MEA Performance for PEMFCs under Low Relative Humidity and Low Oxygen Content Conditions via Catalyst Functionalization Journal Article

    Journal of Electrochemical Society, 164 (6), pp. F674-F684, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Calderon S V. and B Gomes and P J Ferreira and S Carvalho

    Zinc Nanostructures for Oxygen Scavenging Journal Article

    Nanoscale, 16 (9), pp. 5254-5262, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Firat C Cetinbas and Rajesh K Ahluwalia and Nancy Kariuki and Vincent De Andrade and Dash Fongalland and Linda Smith and Jonathan Sharman and Paulo Ferreira and Somaye Rasouli and Deborah J Myers

    Hybrid approach combining multiple characterization techniques and simulations for microstructural analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell electrodes Journal Article

    Journal of Power Sources, 344 (15), pp. 62-73, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    S Rasouli and Ortiz R A Godoy and Yang Z M Gummalla and S C Ball and D Myers and P.J.Ferreira

    Surface area loss mechanisms of Pt3Co nanocatalysts in proton exchange membrane fuel cells Journal Article

    Journal of Power Sources, 343 , pp. 571-579, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2016

    Laranjeira M S. and Moço A. and Ferreira J. and Coimbra S. and Costa E. and Santos-Silva A. and Ferreira P J. and Monteiro F.J.

    Different hydroxyapatite magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging: Its effects on hemostatic, hemolytic activity and cellular cytotoxicity Journal Article

    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 146 , 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Karalee A Jarvis and Chih-Chieh Wang and James C Knight and Lew Rabenberg and Arumugam Manthiram and Paulo J Ferreira

    Formation and effect of orientation domains in layered oxide cathodes of lithium-ion batteries Journal Article

    Acta Materialia, 108 , pp. 264-270, 2016.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Charles D Amos and Manuel A Roldan and Maria Varela and John B Goodenough and Paulo J Ferreira

    Revealing the Reconstructed Surface of Li[Mn2]O4 Journal Article

    Nano Letters, 16 (5), 2016.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Le Xin and Somaye Rasouli and Fan Yang and Aytekin Uzunoglu and Cheng-Jun Sun and Paulo Jorge Ferreira and Yuzi Liu and Lia Stanciu and Jian Xie

    Understanding Pt nanoparticle anchoring on graphene supports through surface functionalization Journal Article

    ACS Catalysis, 6 (4), pp. 2642-2653, 2016.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2015

    James A Gilbert and Nancy N Kariuki and Xiaoping Wang and Jeremy A Kropf and Kang Yu and Daniel J Groom and Paulo J Ferreira and Dane Morgan and Deborah J Myers

    Pt Catalyst Degradation in Aqueous and Fuel Cell Environments studied via In-Operando Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Journal Article

    Electrochimica Acta, 10 , pp. 223-234, 2015.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Mallika Gummall and Sarah C Ball and David A Condit and Somaye Rasouli and Kang Yu and Paulo J Ferreira and Deborah J Myers and Zhiwei Yang

    Effect of Particle Size and Operating Conditions on Pt3Co PEMFC Cathode Catalyst Durability Journal Article

    Catalysts, 5 (2), pp. 926-948, 2015.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    James A Gilbert and Jeremy A Kropf and Nancy N Kariuki and Stacy DeCrane and Xiaoping Wang and Somaye Rasouli and Kang Yu and Paulo J Ferreira and Dane Morgan and Deborah J Myers

    In-Operando Anomalous Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering Investigation of Pt3Co Catalyst Degradation in Aqueous and Fuel Cell Environments Journal Article

    Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 162 (14), pp. F1487-F1497, 2015.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2014

    Kang Yu and Daniel J Groom and Xiaoping Wang and Zhiwei Yang and Mallika Gummall and Sarah C Ball and Deborah J Myers and Paulo J Ferreira

    Degradation Mechanisms of Platinum Nanoparticle Catalysts in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: The Role of Particle Size Journal Article

    Microscopy and Microanalysis, 20 , pp. 482-483, 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    M A Asoro and P J Ferreira and D Kovar

    In Situ TEM and STEM Studies of Sintering of Ag and Pt Nanoparticles Journal Article

    Acta Materialia, 81 , pp. 173-183, 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Katayun Barmak and Amith Darbal and Kameswaran J Ganesh and Paulo J Ferreira and Jeffrey M Rickman and Tik Sun and Bo Yao and Andrew P Warren and Kevin R Coffey

    Surface and grain boundary scattering in nanometric Cu thin films: A quantitative analysis including twin boundaries Journal Article

    Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A, 32 , 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Thandavarayan Maiyalagan and Karalee A Jarvis and Soosairaj Therese and Paulo J Ferreira and Arumugam Manthiram

    Spinel-type lithium cobalt oxide as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions Journal Article

    Nature Communications, 5 (3949), 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    M A Asoro and D Kovar and P J Ferreira

    Effect of surface carbon coating on sintering of silver nanoparticles: in situ TEM observations Journal Article

    Chemical Communications, 37 , 2014.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2013

    Karalee A Jarvis and Chih-Chieh Wang and Arumugam Manthiram and Paulo J Ferreira

    The role of composition in the atomic structure, oxygen loss, and capacity of layered Li–Mn–Ni oxide cathodes Journal Article

    Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 2 , pp. 1353-1362, 2013.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Chih-Chieh Wang and Karalee A Jarvis and Paulo J Ferreira and Arumugam Manthiram

    Effect of synthesis conditions on the first charge and reversible capacities of lithium-rich layered Oxides Journal Article

    Chemistry of Materials, 25 (15), pp. 3267–3275, 2013.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Linjun Cao and K J Ganesh and Lijuan Zhang and Oliver Aubel and Christian Hennesthal and Meike Hauschildt and Paulo J Ferreira and Paul S Ho

    Grain structure analysis and effect on electromigration reliability in nanoscale Cu interconnects Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 102 , pp. 131907-1:131907-4, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    J T Graham and G L Brennecka and P J Ferreira and L Small and D Duquette and C Apblett and S Landsberger and J F Ihlefeld

    Neutron irradiation effects on domain wall mobility and reversibility in lead zirconate titanate thin films Journal Article

    Journal of Applied Physics, 113 (124104), 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    A Darbal and K J Ganesh and X Liu and S -B Lee and J Ledonne and T Sun and B Yao and A P Warren and G S Rohrer and A D Rollett and P J Ferreira and K R Coffey and K Barmak

    Grain Boundary Character Distribution of Nanocrystalline Cu Thin Films Using Stereological Analysis of Transmission Electron Microscope Orientation Maps Journal Article

    Microscopy and Microanalysis, 19 (1), pp. 111-119, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    B Patrick and H Ham and Y Shao-Horn and L Allard and G Hwang and P J Ferreira

    Atomic Structure and Composition of “Pt3Co” Nanocatalysts in Fuel Cells: An Aberration-Corrected STEM HAADF Study Journal Article

    American Chemical Society, 25 (4), pp. 530-535, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

CONFERENCES

  • S. Zafari, T. Eerola, P.J. Ferreira, H. Kalviainen, Alan Bovik, “Automated Segmentation of Nanoparticles in BF TEM Images by U-Net Binarization and Branch and Bound”, 18th International Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, 2-5 September, Salerno, Italy, (2019)

S Rasouli, D Groom, K Yu, A Godoy, A Bovik, D Myers, Naotoshi Nakashima, PJ Ferreira, “On the Study of PEM Fuel Cells by Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22, S3, pp. 1280-1281, (2016);

D Groom, S Rasouli, K Yu, A Bovik, PJ Ferreira, “A Precise Description of Inorganic Nanoparticles in HRTEM Micrographs”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22 (S3), 548-549, (2016);

ST Hu, K Hattar, P Ferreira, “Texture and Phase Analysis in Nanocrystalline Ni Thin Films by Precession Electron Diffraction Microscopy”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22 (S3), 526-527, (2016).

C Amos, MA Roldan, M Varela, JB Goodenough, PJ Ferreira, “Understanding the Surface Structure of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathodes with Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM and EELS”,Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S3), 1375-1376, (2015);

ST Hu, L Morganti, S Rajasekhara, K Hattar, P Ferreira, “Texture and Phase Analysis in Nanocrystalline Ni Thin Films by Precession Electron Diffraction Microscopy”,Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S3), 1457-1458, (2015);

S Rasouli, MR Berber, IH Hafez, T Fujigaya, P Ferreira, N Nakashima, “Identical Location Aberration Corrected TEM Study on the Degradation Mechanism of Platinum Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes in High Temperature Fuel Cells”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S3), E2-E3, (2015);

RF Santos, F Viana, PJ Ferreira, “Microstructure Evolution with Direct Current Density on Electrodeposited Copper Films”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21 (S5), 45-46, (2015);

Somaye Rasouli, Jonathan Sharman, Alex Martinez, Dash Fongalland, Graham Hards, Tomokazu Yamamoto, Deborah Myers, Kenji Higashida, Paulo Ferreira, “AberrationCorrected STEM Study on Pt 0.8 Ni De-alloyed Nanocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 20 (S3), pp. 480-481, (2014).

Shreyas Rajasekhara, PJ Ferreira, K Hattar, “Microstructural evolution of nanocrystalline nickel thin films due to high-energy heavy-ion irradiation”, Application of Accelerators in Research and industry: Twenty-Second International Conference, Vol. 1525, pp. 630-635, AIP Publishing, (2013);

J. T. Graham, S. Landsberger, D. Millsap, P.J. Ferreira, C. Frahme, R. L. Dougherty, “Curriculum Development for a Modular Short Course on Radiation Effects in Electronics”, Transactions European Nuclear Society, Madrid, Spain, November 17-21, pp. 281-287, (2013);

K.A. Jarvis, Z.Q. Deng, L. F. Allard, A. Manthiram, and P.J. Ferreira, “Understanding Structural Defects in Lithium-rich Layered Oxide Cathodes by Aberration-Corrected STEM”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (suppl. 2), pp. 1414-1415, (2012);

K. Jarvis, Z. Deng, A. Manthiram, P.J. Ferreira, ”Understanding the Role of Lithium Content on the Structure and Capacity of Lithium-Rich Layered Oxides by Aberration-Corrected STEM, D-STEM, and EDS”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (suppl. 2), pp. 1484-1485, (2012);

E.A. Stach, D. Su, P. Ercius, K. J. Ganesh, P.J. Ferreira, Y. Zhu, K. Yager, S. Murali, M.D. Stoller, W. Cai, Adam Pirkle, Robert M. Wallace, Katie A. Cychosz, Matthias Thommes, and R.S. Ruoff, “High-Resolution Characterization of Activated Graphene for Supercapacitor Applications”, Microscopy and Microanalysis, 18 (suppl. 2), pp. 1536-1537, (2012).

BOOKS

Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design: An Introduction for Engineers and Architects, D. Schodek (Harvard University) P.J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin) and Michael Ashby (University of Cambridge, UK), Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann (Elsevier), (2009)

In-situ Electron Microscopy, (On-line Proceedings), MM Symposium, MRS Fall Meeting 2005, 1 volume, edited by Paulo J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin), Ian M. Robertson (University of Illinois), Gerhard Dehm (University of Leoben, Austria) and Hiroyasu Saka (Nagoya University, Japan).

Materials: Years 2000, edited by M.A. Fortes (IST, Portugal) and P.J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin), Instituto Superior Tecnico/Univ. Of Texas, 1st edition, 1 volume, 546 pages, Marco 2003, published by IST Press, English/Portuguese.

Investing In The Future: University-Industry Collaborations in Portugal and USA, edited by P.J. Ferreira (University of Texas at Austin), J. Tavares (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal), N. Vasconcelos (University of California at San Diego) and F. Veloso (Carnegie Mellon University), PAPS/ FLAD, Cambridge, MA, 1st edition, 161 pages, Maio 2003, published by Gradiva Publicacoes Limitada, Portuguese.

Pedro Costa and Paulo Ferreira, “In situ TEM of Carbon Nanotubes”, “Advances in Transmission Electron Microscopy”, published by Springer Verlag, pp. 207-247 (2015)

Rajasekhara,L.P Karjalainen, A. Kyrolainen and P. J. Ferreira, “Development of Stainless Steels with Superior Mechanical Properties: A Correlation Between Structure and Properties in Nanoscale/ Sub-micron Grained Austenitic Stainless Steel”, “Advanced Steels: The Recent Scenario in Steel Science and Technology”, published by Springer, editors are Yuqing Weng, Han Dong, Yong Gan, pp. 371-384 (2011).

Rajasekhara,L.P Karjalainen, A. Kyrolainen and P. J. Ferreira, “Nano/Sub micron Grained Austenitic Steels”, “Advances in Stainless Steels” published by Universities Press, India, editors are Baldev Raj, K B S Rao, T Jayakumar, PV Sivaprasad, Saroja Saibaba and P. Shankar, pp. 221-233 (2009).

J. Ferreira, “High Tc Superconductor Materials”, Materials: Years 2000, pp. 269-275, edited by M.A.Fortes and P.J. Ferreira, Instituto Superior Tecnico/Univ. Of Texas, 1st edition, 1 volumes, 546 pages, March 2003, published by IST Press, Portuguese.

J. Ferreira, J. Tavares, N. Vasconcelos, F. Veloso and Pedro Conceicao, “Investir No Futuro: Relacoes Universidade Industria”, Investing In The Future: University-Industry Collaborations In Portugal And USA, pp. 11-33, PAPS/ FLAD, Cambridge, MA, 1st edition, 161 pages, Maio 2003, published by Gradiva Publicacoes Limitada, Portuguese.

J. Ferreira, “Nanotechnology”, Engineering In Portugal During The 20th Century, edited by Jose Brito, Manuel Heitor and Maria Rollo, published by Dom Quixote, Vol.1, pp. 575-585, 2004.

J.Ferreira, “Superconductor Materials”, Nova Activa Multimedia Encyclopedia, Lexicultural Press, pp. 218-219, 2004,

J. Ferreira, “Ferromagnetic and Paramagnetic Materials”, Nova Activa Multimedia Encyclopedia, Lexicultural Press, pp. 220-221, 2004.

J. Ferreira, “Nanotechnology”, Nova Activa Multimedia Encyclopedia, Lexicultural Press, pp. 230-231, 2004.

PLENARY, KEYNOTE, INVICTED LECTURES

“The Science of the Small: Understanding the Thermal Behavior of Nanoparticles”, Brazilian Congress of Microscopy, Buzios, Brazil, June 4-7, 2017

“The Science of the Small: Understanding the World of Nanoparticles”, Nano Monterrey 2015, International Forum, Monterrey, Mexico, October 2015

“Understanding the Surface Structure of Li1-x[Mn2]O4 by Aberration-Corrected STEM and EELS”, NanoPT, Lisbon, Portugal, February 7-9

“Understanding the Surface of LiMn2O4 Spinel Cathodes with Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM and EELS”, Hyceltec 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 19-23, 2017

“Seeing is Believing: The Beauty of In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy” 50th Anniversary of the Portuguese Society of Microscopy, Porto, Portugal, June 29-30 2016

“The Science of the Small: Understanding Coalescence of Nanoparticles by Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, International Conference “NanoSpain 2016”, Logrono, Spain, March 2016.

“Understanding the Atomic Structure of Li-Mn Based Spinel Cathodes with Aberration-Corrected HAADF STEM”, International Conference “TNT2015, Trends in Nanotechnology”, Toulouse, France, September 2015

“Nanotechnology: Science or Fiction?”, International Conference on “Sustainable Intelligent Manufacturing”, Lisbon, Portugal, June 26-29, 2013

“Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steels”; 7th International Conference on Physical and Numerical Simulation of Materials Processing, Oulu, Finland, June 16-19, 2013

“Nano/Submicron Austenitic Stainless Steels with Superior Mechanical Properties”; Conference “International Conference on Advanced Steels 2010”, Guilin, China, November 2010.

“Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steels”, International Symposium on “Advances in Stainless Steels 2007”, Chennai, India, April 9-11, 2007.

In-situ and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Applied to Nanomaterials”, International Conference “Global Materials for the XXI Century: Challenges to Academia and Industry, “, Porto, Portugal, April 1-4, 2007.

“Understanding the Surface Structure of Li1-x[Mn2]O4 by Aberration Corrected STEM and EELS”, MRS Spring Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, April 2-6, 2018.

“Seeing Small: There is Plenty Our Eyes Can’t See”, FCCN Meeting, INL, Braga, Portugal, April 12, 2018

Seminar, “Understanding Nanomaterials by TEM”, Paul Sherrer Institute, Zurich, Switzerland, February 23, 2018.

Seminar, “Nanotechnology and the 4th Industrial Revolution”, Congress of the National Association of Engineers, Coimbra, Portugal, November 23, 2017

Seminar, “Seeing Small: Enabling New Discoveries in Nanomaterials Through Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Workshop on Advanced Electron Microscopy of Materials, Santiago de Compustela, Spain, October 30, 2017

“Seeing Small: There is Plenty Our Eyes Can’t See”, INL Summit, Braga, Portugal, October 19, 2017

Seminar, “Seeing Small: Enabling New Discoveries in Nanomaterials Through Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, Beijing University, Beijing, China, August 28, 2017

Seminar, “Seeing Small: Enabling New Discoveries in Nanomaterials Through Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy”, National University of Singapore, Singapore, July 24, 2017

Seminar, “Thermal Behavior of Nanoparticles”, University of Tras-dos-Montes, Vila Real, Portugal, May 24, 2017

Seminar, “Thermal Behavior of Nanoparticles”, University of Vigo, Vigo, Spain, May 11, 2017

GROUP LEADER

Paulo Ferreira

THE TEAM

Sebastian Calderon Velasco
Research Fellow

Justyna Grzonka
Research Fellow

Cristiana Filipa Almeida Alves
Research Fellow

Charles Amos
Research Fellow

Mohamed Hassine
Research Fellow

Yasmine Ziouani
Research Fellow

Fátima Zorro
Ph.D Student

Rafael Ferreira
Ph.D Student

Francisco Rosário de Figueiredo
Ph.D Student

Ricardo Sousa
Ph.D Student

Bruno Oliveira
Ph.D Student

SUPERVISION OUTSIDE INL

Kang Yu
PostDoc (UT Austin, USA)

Szu-Tung Hu
Ph.D Student (UT Austin, USA)

Cinthya Blois
Ph.D Student (UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil)

FORMER TEAM

Daniel Groom, Ph.D