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Spintronics

RESEARCH

DEPARTMENTS
Nanoelectronics engineering
RESEARCH GROUPS
SystemsEngineerings
nanodevices
spintronics
BTN_PME

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DESCRIPTION

Spintronics is a research area trying to take profit from the spin of the electrons as a mean to obtain, transmit and process information. The spin of the electrons is a degree of freedom that is not explored by conventional electronics rely only on the electrical charge to drive electronic circuits. Spintronics use magnetic materials patterned at the nano-scale to produce spin polatized currents which drive a new class of beyond CMOS components which include magnetic field sensors, non-volatile memories and RF devices.

TOPICS

Picture of MATr 2000 MAGNETIC ANNEALING SYSTEMMAGNETIC ANNEALING SYSTEM (MATr 2000)
The MATR is a system used for annealing at elevated temperatures (up to 400 °C) in the presence of intense magnetic fields (up to 2 Tesla).  Such magnetic fields are generated by a superconducting magnet module created by running current through windings of this material.  The system can handle multiple wafers of 200mm and 150mm in diameter, in parallel or perpendicular position with respect to the magnetic field. There is also a 1×1 inch sample holder available.

Picture of Kenosistec - UHV multitarget confocal sputtering toolUHV multitarget confocal sputtering tool (Kenosistec)
A multi-target UHV sputtering system consisting of a deposition chamber with 11 2” diameter magnetrons in confocal geometry for the co-deposition of materials, optimized wafers of up to 200m in diameter.

Picture of Timaris FTM - TiW, AlSiCu and Al2O3 sputteringTiW, AlSiCu and Al2O3 sputtering (Timaris FTM)
The Four-Target-Module (FTM) physical vapor deposition cluster tool is especially designed for deposition of high–quality metallic, conductive and insulating films. The system is a UHV single wafer cluster tool and consists of one transport module, one multi-target PVD module with up to four DC/RF cathodes (three targets are install in this machine AlSiCu, TiW and Al2O3) and one soft etch/oxidation module. It is capable of depositing different magnetic and non–magnetic layers on wafers with diameters up to 200mm by DC/RF Magnetron Sputtering, with good uniformity for the deposited films. The FTM incorporates Linear Dynamic Deposition (LDD) technology in combination with up to four sputter targets in one vacuum chamber. The LDD technology enables the capability to deposit wedge films with a different film thickness across the wafer and to deposit alloy films with adjustable concentration gradients across one wafer.

Picture of Timaris MTM - Mutitarget sputtering toolMutitarget sputtering tool (Timaris MTM)
The Multi-Target Module (MTM) physical vapor deposition cluster tool is especially designed for deposition of ultra–thin films, magnetic films, high–quality metallic, conductive and insulating films and multiple film stack deposition comprising these materials without the need to break ultra-high vacuum. The system is a UHV single wafer cluster tool and consists of one transport module, one multi-target PVD module with 10 DC/RF cathodes and one soft etch/oxidation module. It is capable of depositing different magnetic and non–magnetic layers on wafers with diameters up to 200mm by DC/RF Magnetron Sputtering (or Ion Beam Sputtering), with good uniformity for the deposited stacks.
Additional features such as wafer heating for hot substrate deposition or a collinear Aligning Magnetic Field (AMF) are available. The AMF can be activated to align the magnetic easy axis during deposition of ferromagnetic films.
The Linear Dynamic Deposition (LDD) technology enables the capability to deposit wedge films with a different film thickness across the wafer and to deposit alloy films with adjustable concentration gradients across one wafer. Both features allow a very cost effective development of film stacks and accelerate the devices development.

CIPTCurrent in-plane tester (CIPT)
To verify the transport properties of MTJs before nanofabrication a  CIPT is used to perform TMR and RA measurements of bulk MTJ stacks. This is a very useful tool since it allows us to retrieve fundamental information of the MTJ stack prior to fabrication. To perform these measurements, the system contacts 12 cantilever electrodes with a variable spacing, down to 750 nm. It performs electrical measurements (current and voltage) through the different cantilevers with different spacing between them. This allows to determine the RA and TMR. The CIPT can determine RA values down to 0.1 Wμm² and measure the TMR with both in-plane and perpendicular anisotropy with in-plane fields up to 2500 Oe and perpendicular fields up to 1400 Oe.

VSMVibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM)
The VSM allows the measurement of the magnetic moment as a function of the applied magnetic field of unpatterned samples. Thus, it allowed us to measure and optimize the magnetic stacks and annealings used during this project. The used VSM system can measure magnetic signals down to 5⋅10^-7 emu and very low coercivities (10 mOe; field resolution) and can apply fields up to 2 T. It allows the fast and accurate measurement of the magnetic moment, not only as a function of the applied magnetic field, but also with temperature (which can be swept from 83 to 570 K). Angular and time dependences of the magnetization can be measured as well.

automated_proberAutomatic Transport Measurement Setup
Once the MTJ fabrication process is complete, this setup does a full characterization of thousands of MTJ devices on the full wafer. A system with 40 tips is used to characterized 10 MTJs in a 4-contact scheme per landing site. Statistically meaningful data regarding the device TMR, RA, shape of the transfer curves, and corresponding deviations arising from the nanofabrication process are obtained. Furthermore, a software allows a collecting different figures of merit (TMR, RA, coercive field, linear range of the curve, etc) and organize them for different parameters (die number, pillar sizes, TMR and RA range, etc).

IP_proberRF prober for in-plane magnetic fields
Electrical contact to characterize RF devices was performed using special Cascade Microtech’s probes. These probes allow high accuracy RF measurements with low contact resistance. An optical microscope in conjugation with holders that allow high accuracy movements (both for the sample and the tips) are used to connect the contacts to the device. The RF measurements can be performed while injecting a DC current in the MTJ. Moreover, synchronization and spin diode torque studies can also be performed since an RF signal can be provided to the MTJ and the generated DC voltage measured. The signal is then transported through coaxial cables to a 3 Hz – 44 GHz spectrum analyzer where the emission spectrum can be acquired. Power suppliers are used to provide current both to the MTJ and the magnet. Automated control of the complete system can be performed to make sequences with different values of current and magnetic field. An amplifier is usually used to increase the measured signal, although its use was not necessary in the cases of MTJs with high output power. A bias tee is used to separate the DC and RF electrical components (being the last one sent to the spectrum analyzer). The magnetic field was applied using a small magnet. The orientation of the magnet could be manually changed but it was limited to relatively small magnetic fields (up to 200 Oe) in the in-plane direction.

OOP_proberRF prober for out-of-plane magnetic fields
A similar to the IP measurement setup this is an RF measurement setup with power supplies and spectrum analyzer, but for out-of-plane magnetic fields. Magnetic fields up to 1.6 T can be applied. The magnetic can be rotated between in-plane and out-of-plane direction with a highly precise stepper motor. The applied magnetic field value can be measured directly using a gaussmeter. The setup requires the positioning of the tips with the aid of an optical microscope. After the tips are properly connected to the contacts the microscope is easily displaced and the magnet positioned in the sample position.

p2020MAGLINE
Project Time Frame: Apr 2017 to Jan 2020
MAGLINE: Desenvolvimento e Validação Industrial do Processo de Fabricação de Sensores TMR
The latest generation of sensors (TMR) has major advantages over previous (Hall and GMR), and there is a market with sustained growth for application of these sensors. However the lack of industrial production capacity prevents its adoption in large scale commercial applications, although it is possible to acquire them commercially those marketed generic sensors are not optimized for any particular application. There is a clear opportunity to capture this market, and provide the market a large-scale production solution TMR sensors optimized and custom-made for different applications.

PRODUTECH-SIF
Project Time Frame: Nov 2017 to Sep 2020
The project embodies a comprehensive response towards the development and implementation of new production systems, embedding advanced production technologies that will equip the manufacturing industry to meet the challenges and opportunities of the 4th industrial revolution.

INFANTE
Project Time Frame: Nov 2017 to Sep 2020
INFANTE is a development and demonstration project for an in-orbit microsatellite, to be launched in 2020. This is the precursor of a constellation for Earth observation and communication with the focus on maritime applications.
INFANTE will be the first satellite developed by the Portuguese Industry, articulated in a national consortium led by TEKEVER group, that includes 9 companies with references in the space sector, as Active Space Technologies, Omnidea, Active Aerogels, GMV, HPS and Spinworks; and 10 internationally recognized R&D Centers in their areas of competence, such as CEIIA; FEUP, ISQ, FCT-UNL, INL, IPN, IPTomar, ISR Lisbon, IT Aveiro, and UBI.

MOSAIC
Project Time Frame: Jan 2013 to Sep 2016
The broader objective is to bring the device level knowledge acquired in the past years by the partners towards systems as a first crucial step towards industrialization, warranting the leading position not only of European research but also of European industry in microwave spintronics.

SPINICUR webpage
Project Time Frame: Oct. 2012- Mar. 2016
SPINICUR (from spin currents) is a training network of European experts dedicated to providing state-of-the-art education and training for early stage and experienced researchers. We have concentrated on an aspect of spintronics – pure spin currents – and specific technical goals in order to secure a very high level of industrial involvement and strong network connectivity through a sharp focus.

SpinCal webpage
Project Time Frame: Jul. 2013 – Jun. 2016
SpinCal stands for Spintronics and spin-caloritronics in magnetic nanosystems, a joint research project (JRP) funded by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The aim of the project is to enable fundamental understanding of new effects emerging in the field of spintronics and spin-caloritronics in magnetic nanosystems. This goal was achieved by developing a new measurement infrastructure and a best practice guide for spin-caloritronic material measurements, providing a road map towards future standardisation of spintronic and spin-caloritronic measurements, materials and devices.

INTEGRATION
Project Time Frame: 2012-2015
Towards hybrid integrated heterogeneous technology devices.

PERPENDICULAR (PTDC-CTM-MET-118236-2010) webpage
Project Time Frame: Jul. 2012- Jun. 2014
Advanced MRAM Structures using Perpendicular Magnetization Materials for Spin Transfer Writing.

PUBLICATIONS

  • 2019

    Tarequzzaman, M; Böhnert, T; Decker, M; Costa, J D; Borme, J; Lacoste, B; Paz, E; Jenkins, A S; Serrano-Guisan, S; Back, C H; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Spin torque nano-oscillator driven by combined spin injection from tunneling and spin Hall current Journal Article

    Communications Physics, 2 (1), pp. 20, 2019, ISSN: 2399-3650.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2018

    Houshang, A; Khymyn, R; Fulara, H; Gangwar, A; Haidar, M; Etesami, S R; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P; Dvornik, M; Dumas, R K; Åkerman, J

    Spin transfer torque driven higher-order propagating spin waves in nano-contact magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    Nature Communications, 9 (1), 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Yang, H F; Garcia-Sanchez, F; Hu, X K; Sievers, S; Böhnert, T; Costa, J D; Tarequzzaman, M; Ferreira, R; Bieler, M; Schumacher, H W

    Excitation and coherent control of magnetization dynamics in magnetic tunnel junctions using acoustic pulses Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 113 (7), pp. 072403, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Yang, H F; Hu, X K; Sievers, S; Bohnert, T; Costa, J D; Tarequzzaman, M; Ferreira, R; Bieler, M; Schumacher, H W

    Coherent Control of Acoustic-Wave-Induced Magnetization Dynamics in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Inproceedings

    2018 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, IEEE, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Tarequzzaman, M; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Borme, J; Martins, L; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Broadband voltage rectifier induced by linear bias dependence in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 112 (25), pp. 252401, 2018, (arXiv: 1804.04104).

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Böhnert, T; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junction thermocouple for thermoelectric power harvesting Journal Article

    Physics Letters A, 2018, ISSN: 0375-9601.

    Links | BibTeX

    Merazzo, K J; Costa, T; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Zander, M; Türr, M; Becker, T; Freitas, P P; Cardoso, S

    Reading magnetic ink patterns with magnetoresistive sensors Journal Article

    AIP Advances, 8 (5), pp. 056633, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Tarequzzaman, M; Bohnert, T; Jenkins, A S; Borme, J; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Influence of MgO Tunnel Barrier Thickness on the Output Power of Three-Terminal Spin Hall Nano-Oscillators Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, pp. 1–4, 2018.

    Links | BibTeX

    Ferreira, R; Paz, E

    Magnetoresistive sensor Patent

    US20180180686A1, 2018.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

  • 2017

    Silva, A V; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Leitao, D C; Devolder, T; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Thermal FMR Spectral Characterization of Very Low RA In-Plane MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 53 (11), pp. 1–5, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Vidal, E G; Muñoz, D R; Arias, S I R; Moreno, J S; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Electronic Energy Meter Based on a Tunnel Magnetoresistive Effect (TMR) Current Sensor Journal Article

    Materials, 10 (10), pp. 1134, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Costa, J D; Serrano-Guisan, S; Lacoste, B; Jenkins, A S; Böhnert, T; Tarequzzaman, M; Borme, J; Deepak, F L; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    High power and low critical current density spin transfer torque nano-oscillators using MgO barriers with intermediate thickness Journal Article

    Scientific Reports, 7 (1), 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Böhnert, T; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E; Lacoste, B; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junctions with integrated thermometers for magnetothermopower measurements Journal Article

    Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 29 (18), pp. 185303, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Kuepferling, M; Garcia-Sanchez, F; Böhnert, T; Ferreira, R; Dutra, R; Sommer, R L; Pasquale, M

    Influence of thermal gradients on the vortex dynamics in CoFeB MTJs Inproceedings

    2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG), pp. 1-1, 2017.

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Böhnert, T; Dutra, R; Sommer, R L; Paz, E; Serrano-Guisan, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Influence of the thermal interface resistance on the thermovoltage of a magnetic tunnel junction Journal Article

    Physical Review B, 95 , pp. 104441, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

    Martins, L; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Optimization of the buffer surface of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions by ion beam milling Journal Article

    Applied Surface Science, 424 , pp. 58 - 62, 2017, ISSN: 0169-4332, (7th International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials, 2nd International Conference on Graphene Technology, 1st International Conference on Spintronics Materials).

    Abstract | Links | BibTeX

    Yang, H F; Hu, X K; Liebing, N; Böhnert, T; Costa, J D; Tarequzzaman, M; Ferreira, R; Sievers, S; Bieler, M; Schumacher, H W

    Electrical measurement of absolute temperature and temperature transients in a buried nanostructure under ultrafast optical heating Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 110 (23), pp. 232403, 2017.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2016

    Huisman, T J; Mikhaylovskiy, R V; Costa, J D; Freimuth, F; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Freitas, P P; Blügel, S; Mokrousov, Y; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, T

    Femtosecond control of electric currents in metallic ferromagnetic heterostructures Journal Article

    Nature Nanotechnology, 11 , pp. 455, 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Knudde, S; Farinha, G; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    AlOx barrier growth in magnetic tunnel junctions for sensor applications Journal Article

    Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 412 , pp. 181-184, 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Romera, M; Talatchian, P; Lebrun, R; Merazzo, K J; Bortolotti, P; Vila, L; Costa, J D; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P; Cyrille, M C; Ebels, U; Cros, V; Grollier, J

    Enhancing the injection locking range of spin torque oscillators through mutual coupling Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 109 (25), 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Linearization of Magnetic Sensors With a Weakly Pinned Free-Layer MTJ Stack Using a Three-Step Annealing Process Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 52 (7), 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

    Freitas, P P; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S

    Spintronic Sensors Journal Article

    Proceedings of the IEEE, 104 (10), pp. 1894-1918, 2016.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2015

    Arias, Ravelo S I; Muñoz, Ramírez D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Note: A non-invasive electronic measurement technique to measure the embedded four resistive elements in a Wheatstone bridge sensor Journal Article

    Review of Scientific Instruments, 86 (6), pp. 066109, 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Ravelo, A; Sergio, I; Ramirez, D; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Total ionizing dose (TID) evaluation of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) current sensors Journal Article

    Sensors and Actuators a-Physical, 225 (119-127), 2015.

    BibTeX

    Valadeiro, J; Amaral, J; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Strategies for pTesla Field Detection Using Magnetoresistive Sensors With a Soft Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400204, 2015.

    BibTeX

    Sievers, S; Liebing, N; Serrano-Guisan, S; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Caprile, A; Manzin, A; Pasquale, M; Skowronski, W; Stobiecki, T; Rott, K; Reiss, G; Langer, J; Ocker, B; Schumacher, H W

    Toward Wafer Scale Inductive Characterization of Spin-Transfer Torque Critical Current Density of Magnetic Tunnel Junction Stacks Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 1400804, 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Caprile, A; Manzin, A; Coisson, M; Pasquale, M; Schumacher, H W; Liebing, N; Sievers, S; Ferreira, R; Serrano-Guisan, S; Paz, E

    Static and Dynamic Analysis of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions With Wedged MgO Barrier Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 51 (1), pp. 4400304, 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Costa, J D; Serrano-Guisan, S; Borme, J; Deepak, F L; Tarequzzaman, M; Paz, E; Ventura, J; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Impact of MgO Thickness on the Performance of Spin-Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics , 51 (11), 2015.

    Links | BibTeX

    Costa, M; Gaspar, J; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Fonseca, H; Martins, M; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Integration of magnetoresistive sensors with atomic force microscopy cantilevers for scanning magnetoresistance microscopy applications Journal Article

    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 51 , 2015.

    BibTeX

    Leitao, D C; Silva, A V; Paz, E; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Magnetoresistive nanosensors: controlling magnetism at the nanoscale Journal Article

    Nanotechnology, 27 (4), 2015.

    BibTeX

  • 2014

    Leitao, D C; Paz, E; Silva, A; Moskaltsova, A; Knudde, S; Deepak, F L; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensing Devices With Soft Pinned Sensing Layer and Low Aspect Ratio Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 4410508, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, F A; Rosado, L S; Franco, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Ramos, P M; Piedade, M; Freitas, P P

    Improved Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Design for the Detection of Superficial Defects by Eddy Currents Testing Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 50 (11), pp. 6201304, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Bao, X Q; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Leitao, D; Silva, A; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P; F.Liu, L

    Ordered arrays of tilted silicon nanobelts with enhanced solar hydrogen evolution performance Journal Article

    Nanoscale, 6 , pp. 2097-2101, 2014.

    BibTeX

    Roldán, A; Roldán, J B; Reig, C; Cardoso, S; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor integration Journal Article

    Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (17), pp. 17E514, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, S; Leitao, D C; Gameiro, L; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity Journal Article

    Microsyst. Technol., 20 , pp. 793-802, 2014.

    BibTeX

    Hou, Z; Silva, A; Leitao, D C; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Micromagnetic and magneto-transport simulations of nanodevices based on MgO tunnel junctions for memory and sensing applications Journal Article

    Physica B: Condensed Matter, 435 , pp. 163-167, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Guo, D W; Cardoso, F A; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction sensors array for non-destructive testing applications Journal Article

    J. Appl. Phys., 115 , pp. 17E513, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, F A; Rosado, L; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Ramos, P M; Piedade, M; Freitas, P P

    Magnetic tunnel junction based eddy current testing probe for detection of surface defects Journal Article

    J. Appl. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 15E16, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

    Leitao, D C; Silva, A; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Deepack, F L; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer Journal Article

    J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E526, 2014.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2013

    Paz, E; Serrano-Guisan, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Room temperature direct detection of low frequency magnetic fields in the 100 pT/Hz(0.5) range using large arrays of magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    J. App. Phys., 115 (17), pp. 17E501, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Silva, A; Leitao, D; Huo, Z; Macedo, R; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Deepak, F L; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Switching Field Variation in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Nanopillars: Experimental Results and Micromagnetic Simulations Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 4405-4408, 2013.

    BibTeX

    Lopes, A; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Deepak, F L; Sanchez, J; Ramirez, D; Ravelo, S; Freitas, P P

    MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Electrical Current Sensor With Integrated Ru Thermal Sensor Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3866-3869, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Amaral, J; Pinto, V; Costa, T; Gaspar, J; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Cardoso, S; Freitas, P P

    Integration of TMR Sensors in Silicon Microneedles for Magnetic Measurements of Neurons Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 49 (7), pp. 3515-3515, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Cardoso, S; Gameiro, L; Leitao, D C; Cardoso, F; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P; Schmid, U; Aldavero, J; LeesterSchaede, M

    Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity for biomedical imaging Journal Article

    Smart Sensors, Actuators, and Mems, pp. 8763, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Delgado, F; Lopez, K; Ferreira, R; Fernández-Rossier, J

    Intrinsic Spin Noise in MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Journal Article

    Appl. Phys. Lett. , 102 (63102), 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

    Liebing, N; Serrano-Guisan, S; Krzysteczko, P; Rott, K; Reiss, G; Langer, J; Ocker, B; Schumacher, H W

    Tunneling magneto thermocurrent in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB based magnetic tunnel junctions Journal Article

    Applied Physics Letters, 102 (24), pp. 242413, 2013.

    Links | BibTeX

  • 2012

    Arias, S; Munoz, D; Moreno, J; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Fractional Modeling of the AC Large-Signal Frequency Response in Magnetoresistive Current Sensors Journal Article

    Sensors, 13 (12), pp. 17516-17533, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    Ventura, J; Teixeira, J M; Paz, E; Amaral, J S; Costa, J D; Araujo, J P; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    The influence of annealing on the bimodal distribution of blocking temperatures of exchange biased bilayers Journal Article

    Phys. Status Solidi RRL, 7 (9), pp. 676-680, 2012.

    BibTeX

    Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P; Wang, J; Xue, S

    Large Area and Low Aspect Ratio Linear Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with a Soft-Pinned Sensing Layer Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 3719, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P; Ribeiro, J; Germano, J; Sousa, L

    2-axis Magnetometers Based on Full Wheatstone Bridges Incorporating Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Connected in Series Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4107, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    Sanchez, J; Ramirez, D; Ravelo, S; Lopes, A; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Freitas, P P

    Electrical Characterization of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Current Sensor for Industrial Applications Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 2823, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

    Janeiro, R J; Gameiro, L; Lopes, A; Cardoso, S; Ferreira, R; Paz, E; Freitas, P P

    Linearization and Field Detectivity in Magnetic Tunnel Junction Sensors Connected in Series Incorporating 16nm-thick NiFe Free Layers Journal Article

    IEEE Trans. Magn, 48 (11), pp. 4111, 2012.

    Links | BibTeX

GROUP LEADER

ricardoferreira

THE TEAM

Alex Jenkins
Staff Researcher

Elvira Paz
Staff Researcher

Tim Böhnert
Staff Researcher

Leandro Martins
Research Fellow

Luana Benetti
Research Fellow

Paulo Coelho
Research Engineer

also on the picture

Cosimo Spagnolo and Mohamed Belmoubarik
Research Engineers from Nanodevices

Oscar Ojeda Toro
Visitor from Universidade Federal de Santa Maria and Universidade Federal de Viçosa

Arthur de Sousa Lopes Moreira and Marion Vieira
Master students from Université Clermont Auvergne (UCA)

Lianwei Wang, En Ping Tu and Hefu Han
from LerTech Co.,Ltd

Previous Members

Lara San-Emeterio

Diogo Costa
Moved to IMEC after working at INL during 2013-2017

Bertrand Lacoste
Moved to Champalimaud after working at INL during 2013-2015

Mohammad Tarequzzaman
Moved to Analog Devices after working at INL during 2013-2018

Santiago Serrano-Guisan
Moved to Headway after working at INL during 2013-2015