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Nanostructured Materials

RESEARCH

DEPARTMENTS
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RESEARCH GROUPS
Atomic
Nanostructured_Rale

HIGHLIGHTS

October 2018

New Paper Published : A. Anumol, F. L. Deepak, A. N. Enyashin, Capillary filling of carbon nanotubes by BiCl3: TEM and MD insight, Nanosystems: Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 2018, 9 (4), P. 1-11.

September 2018

Junjie was at the 19th International Microscopy Congress (http://imc19.com/), Sydney, Australia.

Leonard was at the E-MRS 2018 Fall Meeting (https://www.european-mrs.com/meetings/2018-fall-meeting), Warsaw Poland

FCT-UT Austin Exploratory Project 2DMS has started

August 2018

Leonard was at the M&M 2018 Microscopy & Microanalysis Meeting (https://www.microscopy.org/mandm/2018/), Baltimore, US.

Leonard was at the XXVII International Materials Research Congress (http://www.mrs-mexico.org.mx/imrc2018/), Cancun, Mexico

Paper Published in Scientific Reports: E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak, Single Walled BiI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 10133.

July 2018

Sharath successfully completed his Masters Thesis Defense

Thesis Title: Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study of Modified Titanate Nanowires and Nanotubes

FCT Funded Project: Correlated Analysis of Inorganic Solar Cells in and outside an Electron Microscope (CASOLEM) (https://inl.int/funded-projects/) has started.

Leonard gave an Invited Talk in ANM-2018 (http://www.advanced-nanomaterials-conference.com/speakers/)

Paper Published in Advanced Science: In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle-Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation, Junjie Li, Jiangchun Chen, Hua Wang, Na Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Lin Guo and Francis Leonard Deepak, Adv. Sci., 2018, 1700992; DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700992.

June 2018

Junjie Li presented his work in SCANDEM-2018(http://www.cen.dtu.dk/english/scandem-2018/)

Paper published in Beilstein J Nanotechnology: G. Deokar, Nitul S. Rajput, J. J. Li, F. L. Deepak, W. Ou-Yang, N. Reckinger, C. Bittencourt, J.-F. Colomer, M. Jouaid, Toward the use of CVD-grown MoS2 nanosheets as field-emission source, Beilstein J. of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9, 1686-1694

Paper published in J.Man.Process: Multilevel Process on Large Area Wafers for Nanoscale Devices, B. J. Pires, A. V. Silva, A. Moskaltsova, F. L. Deepak, P. Brogueira, D. C. Leitao, S. Cardoso, J. Manufacturing Processes, 2018, 32, 222-229.

May 2018

Best Poster Award – First Prize (Workshop on Electron Microscopy May 4th 2018, INL)

Poster: Single Walled BiI3 and GdI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within CNT, A. Anumol, Nitin M. Batra, Pedro M. F. J. Costa, Andrey N. Enyashin and Francis Leonard Deepak

Paper published in ChemNanoMat: A C Sunil Sekhar, Anumol E A, C T Cygnet, S Vidhya Lakshmi, Francis Leonard Deepak, C P Vinod, Mesoporous shell@macroporous core aluminosilicates as sustainable nanocatalysts for direct N-alkylation of Amines, ChemNanoMat, 2018, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201800081 (VIP Article)

Highlight in Chemistry Views May 01, 2018(http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/11014918/Pores_for_Thought.html)

DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201800036

April 2018

Paper published in Appl.Surf.Sci: Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling, T. Del Rosso, S.R.W. Louro, F.L.  Deepak, et al. Appl Surf. Sci., 2018, 441, 347-355.

March 2018

Paper published in J. Phys. Chem. Lett: Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2018, 9, 961-969.

February 2018

Paper published in J. Phys. Chem. C: Atomic-Scale Understanding of Gold Cluster Growth on Different Substrates and Adsorption-Induced Structural Change, Qiang Li, Deqiang, Yin, Junjie Li, and Francis Leonard Deepak, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018, 122, 1753-1760.

January 2018

New Book Published by Springer

BookCover

DESCRIPTION

The Nanostructured Materials group is involved in investigating fundamental aspects and phenomena at the atomic scale. This is achieved by employing state of the art aberration corrected TEM/STEM imaging and In situ experimentation in combination with image processing, simulations and theoretical calculations. The group has a set of focused and passionate researchers working on current key topics towards implementing advanced electron microscopy techniques and their applications to a variety of nanomaterials, thin films, nanodevices etc. Some of the key materials investigated include energy related and catalytically important materials; the emphasis being on correlating their atomic structure and chemical composition with their properties and potential applications. Understanding the atomic structure of materials is fundamental to exploring their various interesting properties: magnetic, optical and optoelectronic and this is achieved by carrying out aberration corrected S/TEM imaging in combination with analytical electron microscopy.

We also have several current and ongoing collaborations with international researchers who are leading experts in the field.

Some of the ongoing work of the group include:

  • Implementation of aberration corrected techniques towards the investigations of nanomaterials and nanodevices
  • Investigations of low dimensional materials
  • Metal Nanoparticles and clusters
  • Implementing Tomography-Spectroscopy based techniques for simultaneous structural-morphological-chemical composition analysis of complex nanomaterials in 3D
  • Exploration of novel phases of materials encapsulated within Nanotubes and related nanocavities
  • Investigation of defects in materials
  • In situ transmission electron microscopy to understand nucleation and growth of solid-liquid phases at the interface

Our work is published in leading international journals and include several review articles, book chapters and edited books.

We are always open for new team members. If you are interested in joining the team and applying for external funding (i.e. Marie Curie, FCT, etc.), let us know.

For further queries please contact the Research Group Leader: Leonard Deepak Francis (leonard.francis@inl.int).

RESEARCH PROJECTS

People in this Project: Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak

In situ observation of the lattice induced growth of nanocrystals on substrate

CrystGrowDes_picture

Uncovering dynamical processes of lattice induced epitaxial growth of nanocrystal on the support is critical to understanding crystallization, solid-phase epitaxial growth, Oswald ripening process, and advanced nanofabrication, all of which are linked to different important applications in material field. Here, we conduct direct in-situ atomic-scale dynamical observation of segregated Bi layers on SrBi2Ta2O9 support under low dose electron irradiation to explore the nucleation and growth from an initial disordered solid state to a stable faceted crystal by using aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). We have provided, for the first time, atomic-scale insights into the initial pre-nucleation stage of lattice induced interfacial nucleation, size-dependent crystalline fluctuation and stepped growth stage of the formed nanocrystal on the oxide support at the atomic scale. We identify a critical diameter in forming a stable faceted configuration and find interestingly that the stable nanocrystal presents a size-dependent coalescence mechanism. These results offer an atomic-scale view into dynamic process at solid/solid interfaces, which has implications for thin film growth and advanced nanofabrication.

In situ observation of Droplets Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interface

ACSNano_picture

Unravelling dynamical processes of liquid droplets at liquid/solid interfaces and the interfacial ordering is critical to understanding solidification, liquid-phase epitaxial growth, wetting, liquid-phase joining, crystal growth, and lubrication process, all of which are linked to different important applications in material science. In this work, we observe direct in-situ atomic-scale behaviour of Bi droplets segregated on SrBi2Ta2O9 by using aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy and demonstrate ordered interface and surface structures for the droplets on the oxide at the atomic-scale and unravel a nucleation mechanism involving droplet coalescence at the liquid/solid interface. We identify a critical diameter of the formed nanocrystal in stabilizing the crystalline phase and reveal lattice induced fast crystallization of the droplet at the initial stage of the coalescence of nanocrystal with droplet. Further sequential observations show the stepped coalescence and growth mechanism of the nanocrystals at the atomic-scale. These results offer insights into the dynamic process at liquid/solid interfaces, which may have implications for many functionalities of materials and their applications.

Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles

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Uncovering the evolutional pathways of melting and crystallization atomically is critical to understanding complex microscopic mechanism of first-order phase transformation. Here, we conduct in-situ atomic-scale observations of melting and crystallization in supported Bi-nanoparticles under heating and cooling within an aberration-corrected TEM. We provide direct evidence to the multiple intermediate state events in melting and crystallization. The melting of the supported nanocrystal involves the formation and migration of domain boundaries and dislocations due to the atomic rearrangement under heating, which occurs through a size-dependent multiple intermediate state. A critical size, which is key to inducing the transition pathway in melting from two to four barriers, is identified for the nanocrystal. In contrast, crystallization of a Bi droplet involves three stages. These findings demonstrate that the phase transformations cannot be viewed as a simple single barrier- crossing event but as a complex multiple intermediate state phenomenon, highlighting the importance of nonlocal behaviors.

In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation

AdvSci_picture

Understanding classical and non-classical mechanisms of crystal nucleation and growth at the atomic scale has been of great interest to scientists in many disciplines. However, fulfilling direct atomic-scale observation still poses a significant challenge. Here, by taking a thin amorphous Bi metal nanosheet as a model system, we provide direct atomic resolution of the crystal nucleation and growth initiated from an amorphous state of Bi metal under electron beam inside an aberration corrected transmission electron microscope. We show that the crystal nucleation and growth in the phase transformation of Bi metal from amorphous to crystalline structure takes place via the particle-mediated non-classical mechanism instead of the classical atom-mediated mechanism. The dimension of the smaller particles in two contacted nanoparticles and their mutual orientation relationship are critical to governing several coalescence pathways: total rearrangement pathway, grain boundary migration dominated pathway and surface migration dominated pathway. Sequential strain analyses imply that migration of grain boundary is driven by strain difference in two Bi nanocrystals and the coalescence of nanocrystals is a defect reduction process. The findings may provide useful information on clarifying nanocrystal growth mechanisms of other materials at the atomic scale.

External Collaborations:

Dr. Qiang Li (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China).

C. Chen, Dr. H. Wang, and Prof. L. Guo (School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University Beijing 100191, China).

Prof. N. Chen (School of Materials Science and Engineering Tsinghua University Beijing 100084, China).

Dr. Zhongchang Wang (Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan).

Publications

  • In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle-Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation, Junjie Li, Jiangchun Chen, Hua Wang, Na Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Lin Guo and Francis Leonard Deepak, Adv. Sci., 2018, 1700992; DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700992.
  • Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and   Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2018, 9, 961-969.
  • In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplet Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interfaces, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang, and Francis Leonard Deepak, ACS Nano, 2017, 11 (6), pp 5590–5597.
  • Real-Time Dynamical Observation of Lattice Induced Nucleation and Growth in Interfacial Solid-Solid Phase Transitions, Junjie Li, Qiang Li, Zhongchang Wang, and Francis Leonard Deepak, Cryst. Growth Des., 2016, 16, 7256−7262.

People in this Project: E.A. Anumol and Francis Leonard Deepak

The hollow interior core of nanotubes, both carbon and non-carbon (BN, WS2 etc.) provide the necessary space for the filling, encapsulation and confinement of molecules and crystals both organic and inorganic. In addition they provide templates for the formation of core-shell nanotubes. The reduced dimensionality of the encapsulated material as a consequence of “confinement” presents the advantage of different characteristics compared to that of the bulk material. The interaction between the encapsulated material and the host nanotube plays a crucial role and therefore can govern the structure and electronic properties of such a system.
In this project nanotubes (CNTs as well as Inorganic NTs) which provide accessible space for templated growth of nanotubes or nanorods within them are employed to encapsulate metal halides such as GdI3 and BiI3 which are contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Capillary filling is employed to encapsulate these metal halides within nanotubes of carbon and WS2 to obtain core-shell nanotubes and/or nanorods. Aberration Corrected Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy using the Titan G2 80-200 TEM/STEM with ChemiSTEM Technology and FEI Titan Themis 60-300 kV is employed to characterize the atomic structure, morphology and composition of these core-shell structures.

Project2_pictureExternal Collaborations
Dr. Pedro Costa and Mr. Nitin M. Batra (KAUST, Saudi Arabia)

Dr. Andrey Enyashin: Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Ural Federal University, Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation).

Publications

(1) N.M. Batra, E. A. Anumol, J. Smajic, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak and P. M. F. J. Costa, Morphological phase diagram of a metal halide encapsulated in carbon nanotubes,J. Phys. Chem C, 2018 In Press.

(2) E.A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak, Single Walled BiI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 10133.

(3) E. A. Anumol, F. L. Deepak, A. N. Enyashin, Capillary filling of carbon nanotubes by BiCl3: TEM and MD insight, Nanosystems: Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 2018, 9 (4), P. 1-11.

(4) Capillary Imbibition of Gadolinium Halides into WS2 Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics, Francis Leonard Deepak and A. N. Enyashin, Isr. J. Chem, Special Issue: Computational Science of Inorganic Nanostructures, 2017, 57, 501-508.

(5) Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes, E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, N. M. Batra, P. M. F. J. Costa and Francis Leonard Deepak, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 12170-12181.

People in this Project: E.A. Anumol and Francis Leonard Deepak

In this project HAADF-STEM tomography is employed to obtain the 3D morphology of nanomaterials such as nanocatalysts and core-shell nanotubes. A Titan G2 80-200 TEM/STEM with ChemiSTEM Technology is used for this. EDX-STEM tomography is employed to obtain 3D chemical mapping. Low accelerating voltage (80 kV) enables tomography of beam sensitive materials such as carbon nanotubes. A high tilt tomography holder  and Super-X EDS detector (in the Titan ChemiSTEM) comprising four SDD detectors enable the EDX mapping in a wide tilt range (-70° to +70°) . Inspect 3D software is used for reconstruction and Amira for visualization.

Project3_pictureExternal Collaborations

Dr. Pedro Costa and Mr. Nitin M. Batra (KAUST, Saudi Arabia)

Dr. Andrey Enyashin – Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Institute of Solid State Chemistry UB RAS Ekaterinburg, RUSSIAN FEDERATION).

Dr. C.P.VinodCSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, India

Publications

(1) Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes, E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, N. M. Batra, P. M. F. J. Costa and Francis Leonard Deepak, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 12170-12181.

(2) A Convenient Route for Au@Ti-SiO2 Nanocatalyst Synthesis and its Application for Room Temperature CO Oxidation, A. Yogitha Soni, E. A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak Francis Leonard Deepak, C. P. Vinod, Chathakudath, Phys. Chem. C 2017, 129, 4946-4957.

(3) A C Sunil Sekhar, Anumol E A, C T Cygnet, S Vidhya Lakshmi, Francis Leonard Deepak, C P Vinod, Mesoporous shell@macroporous core aluminosilicates as sustainable nanocatalysts for direct N-alkylation of Amines, ChemNanoMat, 2018, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201800081 (VIP Article)

Highlight in Chemistry Views – May 01, 2018. (http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/11014918/Pores_for_Thought.html) DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201800036

People in this Project: Markus Snellman, Irene Bechis, Joao Freitas, Tiago Rebelo, E.A. Anumol, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak

NJC.jpg

Monometallic, Bimetallic and multimetallic core-shell nanoparticle/nanowire catalysts of noble metal alloys possesses superior activity, high selectivity and stability at low temperature compared to traditional bulk metals. This makes them ideal candidates for carrying out investigations on their structure, nature of alloy formation and thus understand the way the catalytic activity is enhanced. Direct microscopic studies of various bimetallic nanoparticles have been carried out using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). However, this method is limited because of the small difference in the lattice constant involved. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) can produce chemical contrast due to due to different electron beam extinction distances. This has been applied successfully to image bimetallic nanoparticles down to 10 nm in diameter. Since the particles need to be in a low index zone orientation, this method is not easy to use in practice. As an alternative method of nanostructure determination high angle angular dark field (HAADF) imaging technique has been used successfully. The HAADF method has been used to detect variation in chemical composition down to single atom level in structures of nanosized particles. STEM-HAADF imaging carried out in an aberration corrected microscope reveals the atomistic structure and the alloying of bimetallic nanoparticles and nanowires. In combination with high resolution spectral and chemical analysis this techniques provides unprecedented information never obtained till date. Understanding the nature and structure of such bimetallic/multimetallic nanocatalysts is important to enable modification of their structure/morphology/composition and enhance their catalytic performance for fuel cells and other industrial applications.

External Collaborations

Prof. M. Arturo López-Quintela (Dept. Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry Lab of Nanotechnology and Magnetism (NANOMAG) Research Technological Institute University of Santiago de Compostela)

Dr. P. John Thomas (School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, UK)

Prof. Maurizio Muniz-Miranda (“Ugo Schiff” Chemistry Dept, University of Florence)

Dr. Roberto Pilot (Consorzio INSTM and Department of Chemical Sciences, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy)

Dr. C.P. Vinod (Catalysis Division and Center of Excellence on Surface Science, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, INDIA)

Dr. R. Nandini Devi (Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India)

Dr. Qiang Li (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China)

Dr. Deqiang Yin (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China and Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan)

T. Del Rosso, Department of Physics, Pontifi­cia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Book Chapters

  • Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques Towards the Understanding of Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters, Francis Leonard Deepak, E.A. Anumol, Junjie Li, Book: Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters: Recent Advances in the synthesis, properties and applications (Springer), Ed: Francis Leonard Deepak (2018).
  • Advanced Methods of Electron Microscopy in Catalysis Research, Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Arturo Ponce-Pedraza, Sergio Mejia-Rosales and Francis Leonard Deepak, Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics (Academic Press), Editor: Peter Hawkes, vol. 177, pp: 279-342 (2013).

Edited Book

BookCover

Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters Advances in Synthesis, Properties and Applications, Ed: Francis Leonard Deepak, Springer 2018.

Publications

(1) Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling, T. Del Rosso, S.R.W. Louro, F.L. Deepak, E.C. Romani, Q. Zaman, Tahir, O. Pandoli, M. Cremona, F.L. Freire Junior, P. De Buele, T. De St. Pierre, R.Q. Aucelio, G. Mariotto, S. Gemini- Piperni, A.R. Ribeiro, S.M. Landi, A. Magalhaes, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2018, 441, 347-355.

(2) Qiang Li, Deqiang, Yin, Junjie Li, and Francis Leonard Deepak, Atomic-Scale Understanding of Gold Cluster Growth on Different Substrates and Adsorption-Induced Structural Change, J. Phys. Chem. C 2018, 122, 1753-1760.

(3) Magnetic Nanoparticles obtained by two-step Laser Ablation of Nickel and Silver in pure Water, Cristina Gellini, Francis Leonard Deepak, Maurizio Muniz-Miranda, Stefano Caporali, Francesco Muniz-Miranda, Alfonso Pedone, Claudia Innocenti, Claudio Sangregorio, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 121, 3597-3606.

(4) A convenient route for Au@Ti-SiO2 nanocatalyst synthesis and its application for room temperature CO oxidation, Yogita Sonia, A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak, Francis Leonard Deepak, C.P. Vinod, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 129, 4946-4957.

(5) Understanding alloy structure and composition in sinter-resistant AgPd@SiO2 encapsulated catalysts and their effect on catalytic properties, Sourik Mondal, Thattarathody Rajesh, Basab B. Dhar, Markus Snellman, Junjie Li, Francis Leonard Deepak and R. Nandini Devi, New J. Chem., 2017, 41, 14652.

(6) Controlling Bimetallic Nanostructures by the Microemulsion Method with Subnanometer Resolution Using a Prediction Model, David Buceta, Concha Tojo, Miomir Vukmirovic, Francis Leonard Deepak, Arturo M. Lopez-Quintela, Langmuir, 2015, 31, 7435-7439.

(7) Wavelength dispersion of the local field intensity in silver–gold nanocages, R. Pilot, Zoppi, S. Trigari, F. L. Deepak, E. Giorgetti and R. Bozio, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 7355.

(8) Stable Ruthenium colloids by Laser Ablation, Brandi, S. Caporali, S. Cicchi, L. Lascialfari, M. Muniz-Miranda, S. Orazzini, M. Severi, Francis Leonard Deepak and E. Giorgetti, IEEE NANO, July 2015.

People in this Project: Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak

Doping is an effective method to tune the electronic properties for MoS2 as well as other 2D semiconductors and has significant implications on their optical and electronic properties. In this project we fabricate doped MoS2 samples with different dopants and/or doping concentrations and study them employing high resolution imaging and spectroscopy.

External Collaborations:

Dr. G. Deokar (University of Namur, Belgium)

Publications

G. Deokar, Nitul S. Rajput, J. J. Li, F. L. Deepak, W. Ou-Yang, N. Reckinger, C. Bittencourt, J.-F. Colomer, M. Jouaid, Toward the use of CVD-grown MoS2 nanosheets as field-emission source, Beilstein J. of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9, 1686-1694.

People in this Project: Sharath Kumar and Francis Leonard Deepak

Project6_pictureThe study is aimed at employing electron microcopy in combination with spectroscopic techniques to study these materials and provide an accurate and in-depth understanding into the various aspects related to their catalytic activity. The samples under consideration are transition metal modified TNTs which are prepared by cation exchange of the hydrothermally synthesized TNTs as well as doped TNTs. The techniques include employing Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy (AC-TEM/STEM) along with the associated spectroscopic techniques, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), as this could provide the structure, composition and morphology of the specimen in a single experiment, from the same region, with high spatial resolution. Of particular importance would be the identification of the cations that are incorporated as dopants (and/or intercalated) and imaging them with single-atom sensitivity, along with elucidation of their oxidation/bonding states of undoped and doped samples (Ti4+ vs Co2+). It is expected that such a detailed experimental study using electron microscopy would provide new insights into the structural and compositional aspects which influences the catalytic properties.

External Collaborations:

Dr. Anabela Rolo (Dept. Physics, U. Minho, Braga, Portugal)

ONGOING PROJECTS

2017_FCT_H_corModelos-Barras-FUNDOS-v04_3logos-FEDER-descritivo

(1) Correlated Analysis of Inorganic Solar Cells in and outside an Electron Microscope (CASOLEM – 028917).

Period: 26-07-2018 to 25-07-2021

Funding Program: FCT and the ERDF through COMPETE2020 (National Project)

Funding: Euro 239.474,83

Role: P.I.

(2) FLASH sintering of lead free functional oxides towards sustainable processing of materials for energy and related applications (FLASH).

Period: 15-08-2018 to 14-08-2021

Funding Program: FCT and the ERDF through COMPETE2020 (National Project)

Funding: Euro 59.873,16

Role: Participant

(3) Two dimensional magnetic semiconductors (2DMS)

Period: 01-09-2018 to 31-08-2021

Funding: Euro 99.450,00

Funding Program: FCT-UT Austin (National Project)

Role: Participant

(4) REEs-free high-performance permanent magnets based on exchange-spring and high anisotropy phases (CritMag)

Period: 26-07-2018 to 25-07-2021

Funding: Euro 217.356,38

Funding Program: FCT and the ERDF through COMPETE2020 (National Project)

Role: Participant

(5) Collaborative Laboratory NET4CO2 (COLAB)

Funding: Euro 1.654.259

Funding Program: PT2020 (National Project)

Role: Participant

Completed Projects

Regional Projects

(1) Project Title: Self-assembled functionalized nanomaterials for biomolecular recognition.

Acronym: BSELF.

Call: SAESCTN-PIIC&DT/1/2011.

Total funding applied (all corresponding to INL): 373,033.63 Euro

Role: Participant.

(2) Project Title: Fate and Effect of Engineered Nanoparticles in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WATERNANOENV)

Funding Programme: Axencia Galega de Innovacion  (GAIN)-ERDF

Partners: Instituto Tecnolgico de Galicia (ITG)-coordinator, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC)-subcontracted and INL-subcontracted

INL budget: Euro 395,000

(3) N2020. Nanotechnology based functional solutions (NORTE-45-2015-02) (Regional Project)

Budget Total (INL): Euro 2.547.789,00

Duration: 2016-2018

 

European Projects

(1) Project Title: Novel Nano-enabled Energy Efficient and Safe HVAC ducts and systems contributing to a healthier indoor environment. NANOHVAC, FP7-2012-NMP-ENV-ENERGY-ICT-EeB

Acronym: NANOHVAC.

Call: FP7-2012-NMP-ENV-ENERGY-ICT-EeB

Total funding: 2,850,000.00  Euro

INL funding: 207,200.00 Euro

Role: Participant.

(2) Project Title: Regulatory testing of nanomaterials

Acronym: NANoREG

Call: FP7 Nanotechnologies & Nanosciences Thematic Cooperation Programme

Role: Participant.

Total funding: 242,000.00  Euro

INL funding: Total budget: 242,000 Euro

PUBLICATIONS

2018

(1)   Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2018, 9, 961-969.

(2) Junjie Li, Jiangchun Chen, Hua Wang, Na Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Lin Guo and Francis Leonard Deepak, In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle-Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation, Adv. Sci., 2018, 1700992.

(3) Qiang Li, Deqiang, Yin, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Atomic-Scale Understanding of Gold Cluster Growth on Different Substrates and Adsorption-Induced Structural Change, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018, 122, 1753-1760.

(4) E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak, Single Walled BiI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 10133.

(5) E. A. Anumol, F. L. Deepak, A. N. Enyashin, Capillary filling of carbon nanotubes by BiCl3: TEM and MD insight, Nanosystems: Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 2018, 9 (4), P. 1-11.

(6) G. Deokar, Nitul S. Rajput, J. J. Li, F. L. Deepak, W. Ou-Yang, N. Reckinger, C. Bittencourt, J.-F. Colomer, M. Jouaid, Toward the use of CVD-grown MoS2 nanosheets as field-emission source, Beilstein J. of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9, 1686-1694.

(7) A C Sunil Sekhar, Anumol E A, C T Cygnet, S Vidhya Lakshmi, Francis Leonard Deepak, C P Vinod, Mesoporous shell@macroporous core aluminosilicates as sustainable nanocatalysts for direct N-alkylation of Amines, ChemNanoMat, 2018, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201800081 (VIP Article)

Highlight in Chemistry Views: May 01, 2018.

(http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/11014918/Pores_for_Thought.html) DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201800036.

(8) J. Pires, A. V. Silva, A. Moskaltsova, F. L. Deepak, P. Brogueira, D. C. Leitao, S. Cardoso, Multilevel Process on Large Area Wafers for Nanoscale Devices, J. Manufacturing Processes, 2018, 32, 222-229.

(9) T. Del Rosso, S.R.W. Louro, F.L. Deepak, E.C. Romani, Q. Zaman, Tahir, O. Pandoli, M. Cremona, F.L. Freire Junior, P. De Buele, T. De St. Pierre, R.Q. Aucelio, G. Mariotto, S. Gemini-Piperni, A.R. Ribeiro, S.M. Landi, A. Magalhaes, Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling, Appl Surf. Sci., 2018, 441, 347-355.

(10)N. M. Batra, E. A. Anumol, J. Smajic, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak and P. M. F. J. Costa, Morphological phase diagram of a metal halide encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, J. Phys. Chem C, 2018 In Press.

(11)Marek Piotrowski, Miguel Franco, Viviana Sousa, Jose Rodrigues, Francis Leonard Deepak, Yohei Kakefuda, Naoyuki Kawamoto, Tetsuya Baba, Bryan Owens-Baird, Pedro Alpuim, Kirill Kovnir, Takao Mori, Yury V. Kolen´ko, Probing of Thermal Transport in 50-nm Thick PbTe Nanocrystal Film by Time-Domain Thermoreflectance, J. Phys. Chem C, 2018 In Press.

(12) In-situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Kinetic Pathways of Sublimation in Silver Nanoparticles, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang, Yunping Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Submitted 2018.

(13) Ultrafine-Grained Porous Ir-Based Catalysts for High Performance Overall Water Splitting in Acidic Media, Junjie Li, Junyuan Xu, Qiang Li Nan Zhang, Yunping Li, Lifeng Liu, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, Submitted 2018.

(14) Atomic Scale dynamic observations revealing temperature-dependent multi-step nucleation pathways in crystallization, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak Submitted 2018.

(15) Francis Leonard Deepak, E.A. Anumol, Junjie Li, “Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques Towards the Understanding of Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters”, Book: Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters: Recent Advances in the synthesis, properties and applications (Springer), Ed:Francis Leonard Deepak (2018) (Book chapter)

(16) Recent Advances in the Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters, Ed: Francis Leonard Deepak, Springer (2018) (Edited Book)

(17) In-Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization of Supported Bi-Nanoparticles in the TEM, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Microsc.Microanal. 2018, 24 (Suppl 1), 1654-1655. (Conference Proceedings)

(18)Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplets Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth of Supported Bismuth Nanocrystal in the TEM, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Microsc. Microanal. 2018, 24 (Suppl 1), 1702-1703. (Conference Proceedings)

2017

(1) Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplet Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interfaces, ACS Nano, 2017, 11, 5590-5597.

(2) Yogitha Soni, E. A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak, Francis Leonard Deepak, C. P. Vinod,   Chathakudath, A Convenient Route for Au@Ti-SiO2 Nanocatalyst Synthesis and its Application for Room Temperature CO Oxidation, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 129, 4946-4957.

(3) Francis Leonard Deepak and A. N. Enyashin, Capillary Imbibition of Gadolinium Halides into WS2 Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics View, Isr. J. Chem, Special Issue: Computational Science of Inorganic Nanostructures, 2017, 57, 501-508.

(4) Andre J. Lecloux, Rambabu Atluri, Yury V. Kolenko, Francis Leonard Deepak, Discussion about the use of the Volume Specific Surface Area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition. Part two: Experimental approach, Nanoscale, 2017, 14952-14966.

(5) Sourik Mondal, Thattarathody Rajesh, Basab B. Dhar, Markus Snellman, Junjie Li, Francis Leonard Deepak and R. Nandini Devi, Understanding alloy structure and composition in sinter-resistant AgPd@SiO2 encapsulated catalysts and their effect on catalytic properties, New J. Chem., 2017, 41, 14652.

(6) Cristina Gellini, Francis Leonard Deepak, Maurizio Muniz Miranda, Stefano Caporali, Francesco Muniz-Miranda, Alfonso Pedone, Claudia Innocenti, and Claudio Sangregorio, Magneto-Plasmonic Colloidal Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Ablation of Nickel and Silver Targets in Water, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 121, 3597-3606.

(7) D. Costa, S. Serrano-Guisan, B. Lacoste, A. S. Jenkins, T. Bohnert, M. Tarequzzaman, J. Borme, F. L. Deepak, E. Paz, J. Ventura, R. Ferreira & P. P. Freitas, High power and low critical current density spin transfer torque nanooscillators using MgO barriers with intermediate thickness, Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 7237.

(8) Francis Leonard Deepak and Gilberto Casillas, Recent Highlights in advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques: applications to nanomaterials, Nanoscience (Specialist Periodical Reports, Royal Society of Chemistry), Vol 4, 2017, 4, 29-56 (Eds: P. John Thomas and Neerish Revaprasadu) (Book chapter)

2016

(1) E.A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, N. M. Batra, P. M. F. J. Costa and Francis Leonard Deepak, Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes, Nanoscale 2016, 8, 12170-12181

(2) Junjie Li, Qiang Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, Real-Time Dynamical Observation of Lattice Induced Nucleation and Growth in Interfacial Solid-Solid Phase Transitions, Cryst. Growth Des. 2016, 16, 7256-7262.

(3) Rodrigo Magana, Yury V. Kolenko, Francis Leonard Deepak, Conxita Solans, Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Jonathan P. Hill, Katsuhiko Ariga, Lok Kumar Shrestha and Carlos Rodriguez-Abreu, From Chromonic Self-Assembly to Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Materials in Supercapacitor and Vapor Sensing Applications, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 31231-31238.

(4) E.A. Anumol and Francis Leonard Deepak, Nanoscale Chemical Mapping of GdX3@WS2 Nanotubes by EDS-STEM Tomography, European Microscopy Congress: Proceedings, 2016. DOI: 10.1002/9783527808465.EMC2016.5902 (Conference Proceedings)

2015

(1) Francis Leonard Deepak Manuel Banobre-Lopez, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, M. Fatima Cerqueira, Yolanda Pineiro-Redondo, Jose Rivas, Corey M. Thompson, Saeed Kamali, Carlos Rodri­guez-Abreu, Kirill Kovnir, and Yury V. Kolenko, A Systematic Study of the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-,Co, and Ni-Doped Colloidal Magnetite Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 11947 – 11957.

(2) Nitin M Batra, Shashikant P Patole, Ahmed Abdelkader, Dalaver H Anjum, Francis L Deepak and Pedro M F J Costa, Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices, Nanotechnology, 2015, 26, 445301.

(3) David Buceta, Concha Tojo, Miomir Vukmirovic, Francis Leonard Deepak, Arturo M. Lopez-Quintela, Controlling Bimetallic Nanostructures by the Microemulsion Method with Subnanometer Resolution Using a Prediction Model, Langmuir, 2015, 31, 7435-7439.

(4) R. Pilot, A. Zoppi, S. Trigari, F. L. Deepak, E. Giorgetti and R. Bozioa, Wavelength dispersion of the local field intensity in silver-gold nanocages, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 7355-7365.

(5) Eunice Cunha,  Fernanda Proenca, Florinda Costa, Antonio J. Fernandes, Marta A. C. Ferro, Paulo E. C. Lopes, Mariam Debs, Manuel Melle-Franco, Francis Leonard Deepak, Maria C. Paiva, Self-assembled functionalized graphene  nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes, ChemistryOpen 2015, 4, 115-119.

(6) Maryam Salimian, Maxim Ivanov, Francis Leonard Deepak, Dmitri Petrovykh, Igor Bdikin, Marta Ferro, Andre Kholkin, Elby Titus and Gil Goncalves, Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide /spiky nickel nanocomposites for nanoelectronic applications, J. Mater. Chem. 2015, 3, 11516 -11523.

(7) A. Brandi, S. Caporali, S. Cicchi, L. Lascialfari, M. Muniz-Miranda, S. Orazzini, M. Severi, Francis Leonard Deepak and E. Giorgetti, Stable Ruthenium colloids by Laser Ablation, IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO)992-995, July 2015. doi: 10.1109/NANO.2015.7388785 (Conference Proceedings)

(8) D. Costa, S. Serrano-Guisan, J. Borme, F. L. Deepak, M. Tarequzzaman, E. Paz, J.Ventura, R. Ferreira and P.P. Freitas, Impact of MgO thickness on the performance of Spin Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators, IEEE Trans. Magn. 2015. 51, 1401604.

(9) Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy: Applications to Nanomaterials, Ed: Francis  Leonard Deepak, Alvaro Mayoral and Raul Arenal, Springer (2015) (Edited Book)

2014

(1) Stephanie Vial, Dmytro Nykypanchuk, Francis Leonard Deepak, Marta Prado, and  Oleg Gang, Plasmonic response of DNA-Assembled Gold Nanorods (AuNRs), Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2014, 433, 34-42.

(2) Yury V. Kolenko, Manuel Banobre-Lopez, Carlos Rodri­guez-Abreu, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, Francis Leonard Deepak, Dmitri Y. Petrovykh, M. Fátima Cerqueira, Saeed Kamali, Kirill Kovnir, Dmitry V. Shtansky, Oleg I. Lebedev, and Jose Rivas,  High Temperature Magnetism as a Probe for Structural and Compositional Uniformity in Ligand-Capped Magnetite Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118, 28322-28329.

(3) Ana V. Silva, Diana C. Leitao, Ricardo Ferreira, Elvira Paz, Francis Leonard Deepak, Susana Cardoso, and Paulo P. Freitas, Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer, Journal of Applied Physics, 2014, 115, 17E526.

(4) Diana C. Leitao, Elvira Paz, Ana V. Silva, Anastasiia Moskaltsova, Simon Knudde, Francis Leonard Deepak, Ricardo Ferreira, Susana Cardoso and Paulo P. Freitas, Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction sensing devices with soft pinned sensing layer and low aspect ratio, IEEE Transactions on  Magnetics, 2014, 50, 4410508.

(5) Francis Leonard Deepak, Jose Rivas, Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Understanding the structure of nanocatalysts with High Resolution Scanning/ Transmission Electron Microscopy, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 2014, 55, 012005 (Review)

2013

(1) Raul Perez-Hernandez, Claudia E. Gutierrez-Wing, Gilberto Mondragon-Galicia, Albina Gutierrez-Marti­nez, Francis Leonard Deepak, Demetrio Mendoza-Anaya, Ag nanowires as precursors to synthesize novel Ag-CeO2 nanotubes for H2 production by methanol reforming, Cat. Today, 2013, 212, 225-231 (Special Issue: Selected Contributions of the Fourth International Symposium on New Catalytic Materials (NCM-4)).

(2) M.F. Melendrez, K. Hanks, Francis Leonard-Deepak, F. Solis-Pomar, E. Martinez Guerra, E. Perez-Tijerina and M. Jose-Yacaman, A novel and high yield synthesis of CdSe nanowires, J. Mat. Sci. 2013, 48, 4983-4988.

(3) Ana Silva, Diana C. Leitao, Zhiwei. Huo, Rita J. Macedo, Ricardo Ferreira, Elvira Paz, Francis Leonard Deepak, Susana Cardoso, and Paulo P. Freitas, Switching field variation in MgO magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars: experimental results and micromagnetic simulations, IEEE Trans. Magn. 2013, 49 (7), 4405-4408.

(4) Antonio Lopes, Susana Cardoso,  Ricardo Ferreira, Elvira Paz, Francis Leonard Deepak, Jaime Sanchez, Diego Ramirez, Sergio I. Ravelo and Paulo P. Freitas, MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Electrical Current Sensor with Integrated Ru Thermal Sensor, IEEE Trans. Magn. 2013, 49 (7), 3866-3869.

(5) Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Arturo Ponce-Pedraza, Sergio Meijia-Rosales and Francis Leonard Deepak, Advanced Methods of Electron Microscopy in Catalysis Research, Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics (Academic Press) Editor: Peter Hawkes (2013) (Book Chapter).

GROUP LEADER

Leonard_Francis

THE TEAM

Anumol Ashokkumar (Aug 2015 – Aug 2018)
Research Fellow

Junjie Li (Jan 2016 – present)
Research Fellow

Loukya Boddapati (Nov 2018 – present)
Research Fellow

Sharath Kumar 
Master Student (Sep 2016 – present)

Oliver Armstrong
Scientific Visitor (University of Bangor, UK) (Jan-Feb 2018)

Cherrelle Thomas 
Scientific Visitor (UT-Austin, USA) (July 2017)

Dr. John Thomas 
Scientific Visitor (University of Bangor, UK) (August 2017)

Tiago Miguel Pereira Rebelo
Summer Student (June – Aug 2018)

Irene Bechis 
Summer Student (July – Sep 2017)

Joao Freitas
Summer Student (July – Sep 2017)

Markus Snellman
Summer Student (July – Aug 2016)

GROUP LEADER

Leonard_Francis

THE TEAM

Anumol Ashokkumar (Aug 2015 – present)
Research Fellow

Junjie Li (Jan 2016 – present)
Research Fellow

Sharath Kumar 
Master Student (Sep 2016 – present)

Oliver Armstrong

Scientific Visitor (University of Bangor, UK) (Jan-Feb 2018)

Cherrelle Thomas 
Scientific Visitor (UT-Austin, USA) (July 2017)

Dr. John Thomas 
Scientific Visitor (University of Bangor, UK) (August 2017)

Tiago Miguel Pereira Rebelo
Summer Student (June – Aug 2018)

Irene Bechis 
Summer Student (July – Sep 2017)

Joao Freitas
Summer Student (July – Sep 2017)

Markus Snellman
Summer Student (July – Aug 2016)

DESCRIPTION

The Nanostructured Materials group is involved in investigating fundamental aspects and phenomena at the atomic scale. This is achieved by employing state of the art aberration corrected TEM/STEM imaging and In situ experimentation in combination with image processing, simulations and theoretical calculations. The group has a set of focused and passionate researchers working on current key topics towards implementing advanced electron microscopy techniques and their applications to a variety of nanomaterials, thin films, nanodevices etc. Some of the key materials investigated include energy related and catalytically important materials; the emphasis being on correlating their atomic structure and chemical composition with their properties and potential applications. Understanding the atomic structure of materials is fundamental to exploring their various interesting properties: magnetic, optical and optoelectronic and this is achieved by carrying out aberration corrected S/TEM imaging in combination with analytical electron microscopy.

We also have several current and ongoing collaborations with international researchers who are leading experts in the field.

Some of the ongoing work of the group include:

  • Implementation of aberration corrected techniques towards the investigations of nanomaterials and nanodevices
  • Investigations of low dimensional materials
  • Metal Nanoparticles and clusters
  • Implementing Tomography-Spectroscopy based techniques for simultaneous structural-morphological-chemical composition analysis of complex nanomaterials in 3D
  • Exploration of novel phases of materials encapsulated within Nanotubes and related nanocavities
  • Investigation of defects in materials
  • In situ transmission electron microscopy to understand nucleation and growth of solid-liquid phases at the interface

Our work is published in leading international journals and include several review articles, book chapters and edited books.

We are always open for new team members. If you are interested in joining the team and applying for external funding (i.e. Marie Curie, FCT, etc.), let us know.

For further queries please contact the Research Group Leader: Francis Leonard Deepak (leonard.francis@inl.int).

RESEARCH PROJECTS

In situ TEM: Nucleation, Growth and Dynamics 

People in this Project: Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak

In situ observation of the lattice induced growth of nanocrystals on substrate

CrystGrowDes_picture

Uncovering dynamical processes of lattice induced epitaxial growth of nanocrystal on the support is critical to understanding crystallization, solid-phase epitaxial growth, Oswald ripening process, and advanced nanofabrication, all of which are linked to different important applications in material field. Here, we conduct direct in-situ atomic-scale dynamical observation of segregated Bi layers on SrBi2Ta2O9 support under low dose electron irradiation to explore the nucleation and growth from an initial disordered solid state to a stable faceted crystal by using aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). We have provided, for the first time, atomic-scale insights into the initial pre-nucleation stage of lattice induced interfacial nucleation, size-dependent crystalline fluctuation and stepped growth stage of the formed nanocrystal on the oxide support at the atomic scale. We identify a critical diameter in forming a stable faceted configuration and find interestingly that the stable nanocrystal presents a size-dependent coalescence mechanism. These results offer an atomic-scale view into dynamic process at solid/solid interfaces, which has implications for thin film growth and advanced nanofabrication.

In situ observation of Droplets Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interface

ACSNano_picture

Unravelling dynamical processes of liquid droplets at liquid/solid interfaces and the interfacial ordering is critical to understanding solidification, liquid-phase epitaxial growth, wetting, liquid-phase joining, crystal growth, and lubrication process, all of which are linked to different important applications in material science. In this work, we observe direct in-situ atomic-scale behaviour of Bi droplets segregated on SrBi2Ta2O9 by using aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy and demonstrate ordered interface and surface structures for the droplets on the oxide at the atomic-scale and unravel a nucleation mechanism involving droplet coalescence at the liquid/solid interface. We identify a critical diameter of the formed nanocrystal in stabilizing the crystalline phase and reveal lattice induced fast crystallization of the droplet at the initial stage of the coalescence of nanocrystal with droplet. Further sequential observations show the stepped coalescence and growth mechanism of the nanocrystals at the atomic-scale. These results offer insights into the dynamic process at liquid/solid interfaces, which may have implications for many functionalities of materials and their applications.

Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles

JPCL_picture

Uncovering the evolutional pathways of melting and crystallization atomically is critical to understanding complex microscopic mechanism of first-order phase transformation. Here, we conduct in-situ atomic-scale observations of melting and crystallization in supported Bi-nanoparticles under heating and cooling within an aberration-corrected TEM. We provide direct evidence to the multiple intermediate state events in melting and crystallization. The melting of the supported nanocrystal involves the formation and migration of domain boundaries and dislocations due to the atomic rearrangement under heating, which occurs through a size-dependent multiple intermediate state. A critical size, which is key to inducing the transition pathway in melting from two to four barriers, is identified for the nanocrystal. In contrast, crystallization of a Bi droplet involves three stages. These findings demonstrate that the phase transformations cannot be viewed as a simple single barrier-crossing event but as a complex multiple intermediate state phenomenon, highlighting the importance of nonlocal behaviors.

In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation

AdvSci_picture

Understanding classical and non-classical mechanisms of crystal nucleation and growth at the atomic scale has been of great interest to scientists in many disciplines. However, fulfilling direct atomic-scale observation still poses a significant challenge. Here, by taking a thin amorphous Bi metal nanosheet as a model system, we provide direct atomic resolution of the crystal nucleation and growth initiated from an amorphous state of Bi metal under electron beam inside an aberration corrected transmission electron microscope. We show that the crystal nucleation and growth in the phase transformation of Bi metal from amorphous to crystalline structure takes place via the particle-mediated non-classical mechanism instead of the classical atom-mediated mechanism. The dimension of the smaller particles in two contacted nanoparticles and their mutual orientation relationship are critical to governing several coalescence pathways: total rearrangement pathway, grain boundary migration dominated pathway and surface migration dominated pathway. Sequential strain analyses imply that migration of grain boundary is driven by strain difference in two Bi nanocrystals and the coalescence of nanocrystals is a defect reduction process. The findings may provide useful information on clarifying nanocrystal growth mechanisms of other materials at the atomic scale.

External Collaborations:

Dr. Qiang Li (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China).

C. Chen, Dr. H. Wang, and Prof. L. Guo (School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University Beijing 100191, China).

Prof. N. Chen (School of Materials Science and Engineering Tsinghua University Beijing 100084, China).

Dr. Zhongchang Wang (Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan).

Publications

  • In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle-Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation, Junjie Li, Jiangchun Chen, Hua Wang, Na Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Lin Guo and Francis Leonard Deepak, Adv. Sci., 2018, 1700992; DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700992.
  • Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and  Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2018, 9, 961-969.
  • In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplet Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interfaces, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang, and Francis Leonard Deepak, ACS Nano, 2017, 11 (6), pp 5590–5597.
  • Real-Time Dynamical Observation of Lattice Induced Nucleation and Growth in Interfacial Solid-Solid Phase Transitions, Junjie Li, Qiang Li, Zhongchang Wang, and Francis Leonard Deepak, Cryst. Growth Des., 2016, 16, 7256−7262.

Nanotubes with Encapsulated Materials

People in this Project: E.A. Anumol and Francis Leonard Deepak

The hollow interior core of nanotubes, both carbon and non-carbon (BN, WS2 etc.) provide the necessary space for the filling, encapsulation and confinement of molecules and crystals both organic and inorganic. In addition they provide templates for the formation of core-shell nanotubes. The reduced dimensionality of the encapsulated material as a consequence of “confinement” presents the advantage of different characteristics compared to that of the bulk material. The interaction between the encapsulated material and the host nanotube plays a crucial role and therefore can govern the structure and electronic properties of such a system.
In this project nanotubes (CNTs as well as Inorganic NTs) which provide accessible space for templated growth of nanotubes or nanorods within them are employed to encapsulate metal halides such as GdI3 and BiI3 which are contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Capillary filling is employed to encapsulate these metal halides within nanotubes of carbon and WS2 to obtain core-shell nanotubes and/or nanorods. Aberration Corrected Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy using the Titan G2 80-200 TEM/STEM with ChemiSTEM Technology and FEI Titan Themis 60-300 kV is employed to characterize the atomic structure, morphology and composition of these core-shell structures.

Project2_pictureExternal Collaborations
Dr. Pedro Costa and Mr. Nitin M. Batra (KAUST, Saudi Arabia)

Dr. Andrey Enyashin: Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Ural Federal University, Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation).

Publications

(1) N.M. Batra, E. A. Anumol, J. Smajic, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak and P. M. F. J. Costa, Morphological phase diagram of a metal halide encapsulated in carbon nanotubes,J. Phys. Chem C, 2018 In Press.

(2) E.A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak, Single Walled BiI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 10133.

(3) E. A. Anumol, F. L. Deepak, A. N. Enyashin, Capillary filling of carbon nanotubes by BiCl3: TEM and MD insight, Nanosystems: Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 2018, 9 (4), P. 1-11.

(4) Capillary Imbibition of Gadolinium Halides into WS2 Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics, Francis Leonard Deepak and A. N. Enyashin, Isr. J. Chem, Special Issue: Computational Science of Inorganic Nanostructures, 2017, 57, 501-508.

(5) Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes, E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, N. M. Batra, P. M. F. J. Costa and Francis Leonard Deepak, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 12170-12181.

3D Tomography and Tomography-Spectroscopy of Nanomaterials

People in this Project: E.A. Anumol and Francis Leonard Deepak

In this project HAADF-STEM tomography is employed to obtain the 3D morphology of nanomaterials such as nanocatalysts and core-shell nanotubes. A Titan G2 80-200 TEM/STEM with ChemiSTEM Technology is used for this. EDX-STEM tomography is employed to obtain 3D chemical mapping. Low accelerating voltage (80 kV) enables tomography of beam sensitive materials such as carbon nanotubes. A high tilt tomography holder  and Super-X EDS detector (in the Titan ChemiSTEM) comprising four SDD detectors enable the EDX mapping in a wide tilt range (-70° to +70°) . Inspect 3D software is used for reconstruction and Amira for visualization.

Project3_pictureExternal Collaborations

Dr. Pedro Costa and Mr. Nitin M. Batra (KAUST, Saudi Arabia)

Dr. Andrey Enyashin – Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Institute of Solid State Chemistry UB RAS Ekaterinburg, RUSSIAN FEDERATION).

Dr. C.P.VinodCSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, India

Publications

(1) Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes, E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, N. M. Batra, P. M. F. J. Costa and Francis Leonard Deepak, Nanoscale, 2016, 8, 12170-12181.

(2) A Convenient Route for Au@Ti-SiO2 Nanocatalyst Synthesis and its Application for Room Temperature CO Oxidation, A. Yogitha Soni, E. A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak Francis Leonard Deepak, C. P. Vinod, Chathakudath, Phys. Chem. C 2017, 129, 4946-4957.

(3) A C Sunil Sekhar, Anumol E A, C T Cygnet, S Vidhya Lakshmi, Francis Leonard Deepak, C P Vinod, Mesoporous shell@macroporous core aluminosilicates as sustainable nanocatalysts for direct N-alkylation of Amines, ChemNanoMat, 2018, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201800081 (VIP Article)

Highlight in Chemistry Views – May 01, 2018. (http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/11014918/Pores_for_Thought.html) DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201800036

Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters

People in this Project: Markus Snellman, Irene Bechis, Joao Freitas, Tiago Rebelo, E.A. Anumol, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak

NJC.jpg

Monometallic, Bimetallic and multimetallic core-shell nanoparticle/nanowire catalysts of noble metal alloys possesses superior activity, high selectivity and stability at low temperature compared to traditional bulk metals. This makes them ideal candidates for carrying out investigations on their structure, nature of alloy formation and thus understand the way the catalytic activity is enhanced. Direct microscopic studies of various bimetallic nanoparticles have been carried out using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). However, this method is limited because of the small difference in the lattice constant involved. Conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) can produce chemical contrast due to due to different electron beam extinction distances. This has been applied successfully to image bimetallic nanoparticles down to 10 nm in diameter. Since the particles need to be in a low index zone orientation, this method is not easy to use in practice. As an alternative method of nanostructure determination high angle angular dark field (HAADF) imaging technique has been used successfully. The HAADF method has been used to detect variation in chemical composition down to single atom level in structures of nanosized particles. STEM-HAADF imaging carried out in an aberration corrected microscope reveals the atomistic structure and the alloying of bimetallic nanoparticles and nanowires. In combination with high resolution spectral and chemical analysis this techniques provides unprecedented information never obtained till date. Understanding the nature and structure of such bimetallic/multimetallic nanocatalysts is important to enable modification of their structure/morphology/composition and enhance their catalytic performance for fuel cells and other industrial applications.

External Collaborations

Prof. M. Arturo López-Quintela (Dept. Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry Lab of Nanotechnology and Magnetism (NANOMAG) Research Technological Institute University of Santiago de Compostela)

Dr. P. John Thomas (School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, UK)

Prof. Maurizio Muniz-Miranda (“Ugo Schiff” Chemistry Dept, University of Florence)

Dr. Roberto Pilot (Consorzio INSTM and Department of Chemical Sciences, via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy)

Dr. C.P. Vinod (Catalysis Division and Center of Excellence on Surface Science, CSIR National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, INDIA)

Dr. R. Nandini Devi (Catalysis Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune, India)

Dr. Qiang Li (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China)

Dr. Deqiang Yin (School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China and Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan)

T. Del Rosso, Department of Physics, Pontifi­cia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Book Chapters

  • Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques Towards the Understanding of Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters, Francis Leonard Deepak, E.A. Anumol, Junjie Li, Book: Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters: Recent Advances in the synthesis, properties and applications (Springer), Ed: Francis Leonard Deepak (2018).
  • Advanced Methods of Electron Microscopy in Catalysis Research, Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Arturo Ponce-Pedraza, Sergio Mejia-Rosales and Francis Leonard Deepak, Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics (Academic Press), Editor: Peter Hawkes, vol. 177, pp: 279-342 (2013).

Edited Book

BookCover

Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters Advances in Synthesis, Properties and Applications, Ed: Francis Leonard Deepak, Springer 2018.

Publications

(1) Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling, T. Del Rosso, S.R.W. Louro, F.L. Deepak, E.C. Romani, Q. Zaman, Tahir, O. Pandoli, M. Cremona, F.L. Freire Junior, P. De Buele, T. De St. Pierre, R.Q. Aucelio, G. Mariotto, S. Gemini- Piperni, A.R. Ribeiro, S.M. Landi, A. Magalhaes, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2018, 441, 347-355.

(2) Qiang Li, Deqiang, Yin, Junjie Li, and Francis Leonard Deepak, Atomic-Scale Understanding of Gold Cluster Growth on Different Substrates and Adsorption-Induced Structural Change, J. Phys. Chem. C 2018, 122, 1753-1760.

(3) Magnetic Nanoparticles obtained by two-step Laser Ablation of Nickel and Silver in pure Water, Cristina Gellini, Francis Leonard Deepak, Maurizio Muniz-Miranda, Stefano Caporali, Francesco Muniz-Miranda, Alfonso Pedone, Claudia Innocenti, Claudio Sangregorio, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 121, 3597-3606.

(4) A convenient route for Au@Ti-SiO2 nanocatalyst synthesis and its application for room temperature CO oxidation, Yogita Sonia, A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak, Francis Leonard Deepak, C.P. Vinod, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 129, 4946-4957.

(5) Understanding alloy structure and composition in sinter-resistant AgPd@SiO2 encapsulated catalysts and their effect on catalytic properties, Sourik Mondal, Thattarathody Rajesh, Basab B. Dhar, Markus Snellman, Junjie Li, Francis Leonard Deepak and R. Nandini Devi, New J. Chem., 2017, 41, 14652.

(6) Controlling Bimetallic Nanostructures by the Microemulsion Method with Subnanometer Resolution Using a Prediction Model, David Buceta, Concha Tojo, Miomir Vukmirovic, Francis Leonard Deepak, Arturo M. Lopez-Quintela, Langmuir, 2015, 31, 7435-7439.

(7) Wavelength dispersion of the local field intensity in silver–gold nanocages, R. Pilot, Zoppi, S. Trigari, F. L. Deepak, E. Giorgetti and R. Bozio, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, 17, 7355.

(8) Stable Ruthenium colloids by Laser Ablation, Brandi, S. Caporali, S. Cicchi, L. Lascialfari, M. Muniz-Miranda, S. Orazzini, M. Severi, Francis Leonard Deepak and E. Giorgetti, IEEE NANO, July 2015.

Atomic scale structural characterization of 2D nanomaterials

People in this Project: Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak

Doping is an effective method to tune the electronic properties for MoS2 as well as other 2D semiconductors and has significant implications on their optical and electronic properties. In this project we fabricate doped MoS2 samples with different dopants and/or doping concentrations and study them employing high resolution imaging and spectroscopy.

External Collaborations:

Dr. G. Deokar (University of Namur, Belgium)

Publications

G. Deokar, Nitul S. Rajput, J. J. Li, F. L. Deepak, W. Ou-Yang, N. Reckinger, C. Bittencourt, J.-F. Colomer, M. Jouaid, Toward the use of CVD-grown MoS2 nanosheets as field-emission source, Beilstein J. of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9, 1686-1694.

Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study of Modified Titanate Nanotubes (TNTs)

People in this Project: Sharath Kumar and Francis Leonard Deepak

Project6_pictureThe study is aimed at employing electron microcopy in combination with spectroscopic techniques to study these materials and provide an accurate and in-depth understanding into the various aspects related to their catalytic activity. The samples under consideration are transition metal modified TNTs which are prepared by cation exchange of the hydrothermally synthesized TNTs as well as doped TNTs. The techniques include employing Aberration Corrected Electron Microscopy (AC-TEM/STEM) along with the associated spectroscopic techniques, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), as this could provide the structure, composition and morphology of the specimen in a single experiment, from the same region, with high spatial resolution. Of particular importance would be the identification of the cations that are incorporated as dopants (and/or intercalated) and imaging them with single-atom sensitivity, along with elucidation of their oxidation/bonding states of undoped and doped samples (Ti4+ vs Co2+). It is expected that such a detailed experimental study using electron microscopy would provide new insights into the structural and compositional aspects which influences the catalytic properties.

External Collaborations:

Dr. Anabela Rolo (Dept. Physics, U. Minho, Braga, Portugal)

HIGHLIGHTS

October 2018

New Paper Published: E. A. Anumol, F. L. Deepak, A. N. Enyashin, Capillary filling of carbon nanotubes by BiCl3: TEM and MD insight, Nanosystems: Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 2018, 9 (4), P. 1-11.

September 2018

Junjie was at the 19th International Microscopy Congress (http://imc19.com/), Sydney, Australia.

Leonard was at the E-MRS 2018 Fall Meeting (https://www.european-mrs.com/meetings/2018-fall-meeting), Warsaw Poland

FCT-UT Austin Funded Exploratory Project 2DMS has started

August 2018

Leonard was at the M&M 2018 Microscopy & Microanalysis Meeting (https://www.microscopy.org/mandm/2018/), Baltimore, US.

Leonard was at the XXVII International Materials Research Congress (http://www.mrs-mexico.org.mx/imrc2018/), Cancun, Mexico

Paper Published in Scientific Reports: E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak, Single Walled BiI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 10133.

July 2018

Sharath successfully completed his Masters Thesis Defense

Thesis Title: Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study of Modified Titanate Nanowires and Nanotubes

FCT Funded Project: Correlated Analysis of Inorganic Solar Cells in and outside an Electron Microscope (CASOLEM) (https://inl.int/funded-projects/) has started.

Leonard gave an Invited Talk in ANM-2018 (http://www.advanced-nanomaterials-conference.com/speakers/)

Paper Published in Advanced Science: In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle-Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation, Junjie Li, Jiangchun Chen, Hua Wang, Na Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Lin Guo and Francis Leonard Deepak, Adv. Sci., 2018, 1700992; DOI: 10.1002/advs.201700992.

June 2018

Junjie Li presented his work in SCANDEM-2018(http://www.cen.dtu.dk/english/scandem-2018/)

Paper published in Beilstein J Nanotechnology: G. Deokar, Nitul S. Rajput, J. J. Li, F. L. Deepak, W. Ou-Yang, N. Reckinger, C. Bittencourt, J.-F. Colomer, M. Jouaid, Toward the use of CVD-grown MoS2 nanosheets as field-emission source, Beilstein J. of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9, 1686-1694

Paper published in J.Man.Process: Multilevel Process on Large Area Wafers for Nanoscale Devices, B. J. Pires, A. V. Silva, A. Moskaltsova, F. L. Deepak, P. Brogueira, D. C. Leitao, S. Cardoso, J. Manufacturing Processes, 2018, 32, 222-229.

May 2018

Best Poster Award – First Prize (Workshop on Electron Microscopy May 4th 2018, INL)

Poster: Single Walled BiI3 and GdI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within CNT, A. Anumol, Nitin M. Batra, Pedro M. F. J. Costa, Andrey N. Enyashin and Francis Leonard Deepak

Paper published in ChemNanoMat: A C Sunil Sekhar, Anumol E A, C T Cygnet, S Vidhya Lakshmi, Francis Leonard Deepak, C P Vinod, Mesoporous shell@macroporous core aluminosilicates as sustainable nanocatalysts for direct N-alkylation of Amines, ChemNanoMat, 2018, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201800081 (VIP Article)

Highlight in Chemistry Views May 01, 2018(http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/11014918/Pores_for_Thought.html) DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201800036

April 2018

Paper published in Appl.Surf.Sci: Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling, T. Del Rosso, S.R.W. Louro, F.L.  Deepak, et al. Appl Surf. Sci., 2018, 441, 347-355.

March 2018

Paper published in J. Phys. Chem. Lett: Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2018, 9, 961-969.

February 2018

Paper published in J. Phys. Chem. C:Atomic-Scale Understanding of Gold Cluster Growth on Different Substrates and Adsorption-Induced Structural Change, Qiang Li, Deqiang, Yin, Junjie Li, and Francis Leonard Deepak, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018, 122, 1753-1760.

January 2018

New Book Published by Springer

BookCover

ONGOING PROJECTS

2017_FCT_H_corModelos-Barras-FUNDOS-v04_3logos-FEDER-descritivo

(1) Correlated Analysis of Inorganic Solar Cells in and outside an Electron Microscope (CASOLEM – 028917).

Period: 26-07-2018 to 25-07-2021

Funding Program: FCT and the ERDF through COMPETE2020 (National Project)

Funding: Euro 239.474,83

Role: P.I.

(2) FLASH sintering of lead free functional oxides towards sustainable processing of materials for energy and related applications (FLASH).

Period: 15-08-2018 to 14-08-2021

Funding Program: FCT and the ERDF through COMPETE2020 (National Project)

Funding: Euro 59.873,16

Role: Participant

(3) Two dimensional magnetic semiconductors (2DMS)

Period: 01-09-2018 to 31-08-2021

Funding: Euro 99.450,00

Funding Program: FCT-UT Austin (National Project)

Role: Participant

(4) REEs-free high-performance permanent magnets based on exchange-spring and high anisotropy phases (CritMag)

Period: 26-07-2018 to 25-07-2021

Funding: Euro 217.356,38

Funding Program: FCT and the ERDF through COMPETE2020 (National Project)

Role: Participant

(5) Collaborative Laboratory NET4CO2 (COLAB)

Funding: Euro 1.654.259

Funding Program: PT2020 (National Project)

Role: Participant

Completed Projects

Regional Projects

(1) Project Title: Self-assembled functionalized nanomaterials for biomolecular recognition.

Acronym: BSELF.

Call: SAESCTN-PIIC&DT/1/2011.

Total funding applied (all corresponding to INL): 373,033.63 Euro

Role: Participant.

(2) Project Title: Fate and Effect of Engineered Nanoparticles in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WATERNANOENV)

Funding Programme: Axencia Galega de Innovacion (GAIN)-ERDF

Partners: Instituto Tecnolgico de Galicia (ITG)-coordinator, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC)-subcontracted and INL-subcontracted

INL budget: Euro 395,000

(3) N2020. Nanotechnology based functional solutions (NORTE-45-2015-02) (Regional Project)

Budget Total (INL): Euro 2.547.789,00

Duration: 2016-2018

European Projects

(1) Project Title: Novel Nano-enabled Energy Efficient and Safe HVAC ducts and systems contributing to a healthier indoor environment. NANOHVAC, FP7-2012-NMP-ENV-ENERGY-ICT-EeB

Acronym: NANOHVAC.

Call: FP7-2012-NMP-ENV-ENERGY-ICT-EeB

Total funding: 2,850,000.00  Euro

INL funding: 207,200.00 Euro

Role: Participant.

(2) Project Title: Regulatory testing of nanomaterials

Acronym: NANoREG

Call: FP7 Nanotechnologies & Nanosciences Thematic Cooperation Programme

Role: Participant.

INL funding: Total budget: 242,000 Euro

Publications

2018

(1)   Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization in Supported Bi-Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2018, 9, 961-969.

(2) Junjie Li, Jiangchun Chen, Hua Wang, Na Chen, Zhongchang Wang, Lin Guo and Francis Leonard Deepak, In situ Atomic-Scale Study of Particle-Mediated Nucleation and Growth in Amorphous Bi to Nanocrystal Phase Transformation, Adv. Sci., 2018, 1700992.

(3) Qiang Li, Deqiang, Yin, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Atomic-Scale Understanding of Gold Cluster Growth on Different Substrates and Adsorption-Induced Structural Change, J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018, 122, 1753-1760.

(4) E. A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak, Single Walled BiI3 Nanotubes Encapsulated within Carbon Nanotubes, Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 10133.

(5) E. A. Anumol, F. L. Deepak, A. N. Enyashin, Capillary filling of carbon nanotubes by BiCl3: TEM and MD insight, Nanosystems: Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, 2018, 9 (4), P. 1-11.

(6) G. Deokar, Nitul S. Rajput, J. J. Li, F. L. Deepak, W. Ou-Yang, N. Reckinger, C. Bittencourt, J.-F. Colomer, M. Jouaid, Toward the use of CVD-grown MoS2 nanosheets as field-emission source, Beilstein J. of Nanotechnology, 2018, 9, 1686-1694.

(7) A C Sunil Sekhar, Anumol E A, C T Cygnet, S Vidhya Lakshmi, Francis Leonard Deepak, C P Vinod, Mesoporous shell@macroporous core aluminosilicates as sustainable nanocatalysts for direct N-alkylation of Amines, ChemNanoMat, 2018, DOI: 10.1002/cnma.201800081 (VIP Article)

Highlight in Chemistry Views: May 01, 2018.

(http://www.chemistryviews.org/details/ezine/11014918/Pores_for_Thought.html) DOI: 10.1002/chemv.201800036.

(8) J. Pires, A. V. Silva, A. Moskaltsova, F. L. Deepak, P. Brogueira, D. C. Leitao, S. Cardoso, Multilevel Process on Large Area Wafers for Nanoscale Devices, J. Manufacturing Processes, 2018, 32, 222-229.

(9) T. Del Rosso, S.R.W. Louro, F.L. Deepak, E.C. Romani, Q. Zaman, Tahir, O. Pandoli, M. Cremona, F.L. Freire Junior, P. De Buele, T. De St. Pierre, R.Q. Aucelio, G. Mariotto, S. Gemini-Piperni, A.R. Ribeiro, S.M. Landi, A. Magalhaes, Biocompatible Au@Carbynoid/Pluronic-F127 nanocomposites synthesized by pulsed laser ablation assisted CO2 recycling, Appl Surf. Sci., 2018, 441, 347-355.

(10)N. M. Batra, E. A. Anumol, J. Smajic, A. N. Enyashin, F. L. Deepak and P. M. F. J. Costa, Morphological phase diagram of a metal halide encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, J. Phys. Chem C, 2018 In Press.

(11) Marek Piotrowski, Miguel Franco, Viviana Sousa, Jose Rodrigues, Francis Leonard Deepak, Yohei Kakefuda, Naoyuki Kawamoto, Tetsuya Baba, Bryan Owens-Baird, Pedro Alpuim, Kirill Kovnir, Takao Mori, Yury V. Kolen´ko, Probing of Thermal Transport in 50-nm Thick PbTe Nanocrystal Film by Time-Domain Thermoreflectance, J. Phys. Chem C, 2018 In Press.

(12) In-situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Kinetic Pathways of Sublimation in Silver Nanoparticles, Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang, Yunping Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Submitted 2018.

(13) Ultrafine-Grained Porous Ir-Based Catalysts for High Performance Overall Water Splitting in Acidic Media, Junjie Li, Junyuan Xu, Qiang Li Nan Zhang, Yunping Li, Lifeng Liu, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, Submitted 2018.

(14) Atomic Scale dynamic observations revealing temperature-dependent multi-step nucleation pathways in crystallization, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak Submitted 2018.

(15) Francis Leonard Deepak, E.A. Anumol, Junjie Li, “Advanced Electron Microscopy Techniques Towards the Understanding of Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters”, Book: Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters: Recent Advances in the synthesis, properties and applications (Springer), Ed:Francis Leonard Deepak (2018) (Book chapter)

(16) Recent Advances in the Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Metal Nanoparticles and Clusters, Ed: Francis Leonard Deepak, Springer (2018) (Edited Book)

(17) In-Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Intermediate Pathways of Melting and Crystallization of Supported Bi-Nanoparticles in the TEM, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Microsc.Microanal. 2018, 24 (Suppl 1), 1654-1655. (Conference Proceedings)

(18)Direct Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplets Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth of Supported Bismuth Nanocrystal in the TEM, Junjie Li and Francis Leonard Deepak, Microsc. Microanal. 2018, 24 (Suppl 1), 1702-1703. (Conference Proceedings)

2017

(1) Junjie Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Droplet Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interfaces, ACS Nano, 2017, 11, 5590-5597.

(2) Yogitha Soni, E. A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak, Francis Leonard Deepak, C. P. Vinod,   Chathakudath, A Convenient Route for Au@Ti-SiO2 Nanocatalyst Synthesis and its Application for Room Temperature CO Oxidation, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 129, 4946-4957.

(3) Francis Leonard Deepak and A. N. Enyashin, Capillary Imbibition of Gadolinium Halides into WS2 Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics View, Isr. J. Chem, Special Issue: Computational Science of Inorganic Nanostructures, 2017, 57, 501-508.

(4) Andre J. Lecloux, Rambabu Atluri, Yury V. Kolenko, Francis Leonard Deepak, Discussion about the use of the Volume Specific Surface Area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition. Part two: Experimental approach, Nanoscale, 2017, 14952-14966.

(5) Sourik Mondal, Thattarathody Rajesh, Basab B. Dhar, Markus Snellman, Junjie Li, Francis Leonard Deepak and R. Nandini Devi, Understanding alloy structure and composition in sinter-resistant AgPd@SiO2 encapsulated catalysts and their effect on catalytic properties, New J. Chem., 2017, 41, 14652.

(6) Cristina Gellini, Francis Leonard Deepak, Maurizio Muniz Miranda, Stefano Caporali, Francesco Muniz-Miranda, Alfonso Pedone, Claudia Innocenti, and Claudio Sangregorio, Magneto-Plasmonic Colloidal Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Ablation of Nickel and Silver Targets in Water, J. Phys. Chem. C 2017, 121, 3597-3606.

(7) D. Costa, S. Serrano-Guisan, B. Lacoste, A. S. Jenkins, T. Bohnert, M. Tarequzzaman, J. Borme, F. L. Deepak, E. Paz, J. Ventura, R. Ferreira & P. P. Freitas, High power and low critical current density spin transfer torque nanooscillators using MgO barriers with intermediate thickness, Scientific Reports, 2017, 7, 7237.

(8) Francis Leonard Deepak and Gilberto Casillas, Recent Highlights in advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques: applications to nanomaterials, Nanoscience (Specialist Periodical Reports, Royal Society of Chemistry), Vol 4, 2017, 4, 29-56 (Eds: P. John Thomas and Neerish Revaprasadu) (Book chapter)

2016

(1) E.A. Anumol, A. N. Enyashin, N. M. Batra, P. M. F. J. Costa and Francis Leonard Deepak, Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes, Nanoscale 2016, 8, 12170-12181

(2) Junjie Li, Qiang Li, Zhongchang Wang and Francis Leonard Deepak, Real-Time Dynamical Observation of Lattice Induced Nucleation and Growth in Interfacial Solid-Solid Phase Transitions, Cryst. Growth Des. 2016, 16, 7256-7262.

(3) Rodrigo Magana, Yury V. Kolenko, Francis Leonard Deepak, Conxita Solans, Rekha Goswami Shrestha, Jonathan P. Hill, Katsuhiko Ariga, Lok Kumar Shrestha and Carlos Rodriguez-Abreu, From Chromonic Self-Assembly to Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Materials in Supercapacitor and Vapor Sensing Applications, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 31231-31238.

(4) E.A. Anumol and Francis Leonard Deepak, Nanoscale Chemical Mapping of GdX3@WS2 Nanotubes by EDS-STEM Tomography, European Microscopy Congress: Proceedings, 2016. DOI: 10.1002/9783527808465.EMC2016.5902 (Conference Proceedings)

2015

(1) Francis Leonard Deepak Manuel Banobre-Lopez, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, M. Fatima Cerqueira, Yolanda Pineiro-Redondo, Jose Rivas, Corey M. Thompson, Saeed Kamali, Carlos Rodri­guez-Abreu, Kirill Kovnir, and Yury V. Kolenko, A Systematic Study of the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-,Co, and Ni-Doped Colloidal Magnetite Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. C 2015, 119, 11947 – 11957.

(2) Nitin M Batra, Shashikant P Patole, Ahmed Abdelkader, Dalaver H Anjum, Francis L Deepak and Pedro M F J Costa, Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices, Nanotechnology, 2015, 26, 445301.

(3) David Buceta, Concha Tojo, Miomir Vukmirovic, Francis Leonard Deepak, Arturo M. Lopez-Quintela, Controlling Bimetallic Nanostructures by the Microemulsion Method with Subnanometer Resolution Using a Prediction Model, Langmuir, 2015, 31, 7435-7439.

(4) R. Pilot, A. Zoppi, S. Trigari, F. L. Deepak, E. Giorgetti and R. Bozioa, Wavelength dispersion of the local field intensity in silver-gold nanocages, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 7355-7365.

(5) Eunice Cunha,  Fernanda Proenca, Florinda Costa, Antonio J. Fernandes, Marta A. C. Ferro, Paulo E. C. Lopes, Mariam Debs, Manuel Melle-Franco, Francis Leonard Deepak, Maria C. Paiva, Self-assembled functionalized graphene  nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes, ChemistryOpen 2015, 4, 115-119.

(6) Maryam Salimian, Maxim Ivanov, Francis Leonard Deepak, Dmitri Petrovykh, Igor Bdikin, Marta Ferro, Andre Kholkin, Elby Titus and Gil Goncalves, Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide /spiky nickel nanocomposites for nanoelectronic applications, J. Mater. Chem. 2015, 3, 11516 -11523.

(7) A. Brandi, S. Caporali, S. Cicchi, L. Lascialfari, M. Muniz-Miranda, S. Orazzini, M. Severi, Francis Leonard Deepak and E. Giorgetti, Stable Ruthenium colloids by Laser Ablation, IEEE 15th International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO), 992-995, July 2015. doi: 10.1109/NANO.2015.7388785 (Conference Proceedings)

(8) D. Costa, S. Serrano-Guisan, J. Borme, F. L. Deepak, M. Tarequzzaman, E. Paz, J.Ventura, R. Ferreira and P.P. Freitas, Impact of MgO thickness on the performance of Spin Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators, IEEE Trans. Magn. 2015. 51, 1401604.

(9) Advanced Transmission Electron Microscopy: Applications to Nanomaterials, Ed: Francis  Leonard Deepak, Alvaro Mayoral and Raul Arenal, Springer (2015) (Edited Book)

2014

(1) Stephanie Vial, Dmytro Nykypanchuk, Francis Leonard Deepak, Marta Prado, and  Oleg Gang, Plasmonic response of DNA-Assembled Gold Nanorods (AuNRs), Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2014, 433, 34-42.

(2) Yury V. Kolenko, Manuel Banobre-Lopez, Carlos Rodri­guez-Abreu, Enrique Carbo-Argibay, Francis Leonard Deepak, Dmitri Y. Petrovykh, M. Fátima Cerqueira, Saeed Kamali, Kirill Kovnir, Dmitry V. Shtansky, Oleg I. Lebedev, and Jose Rivas,  High-Temperature Magnetism as a Probe for Structural and Compositional Uniformity in Ligand-Capped Magnetite Nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118, 28322-28329.

(3) Ana V. Silva, Diana C. Leitao, Ricardo Ferreira, Elvira Paz, Francis Leonard Deepak, Susana Cardoso, and Paulo P. Freitas, Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer, Journal of Applied Physics, 2014, 115, 17E526.

(4) Diana C. Leitao, Elvira Paz, Ana V. Silva, Anastasiia Moskaltsova, Simon Knudde, Francis Leonard Deepak, Ricardo Ferreira, Susana Cardoso and Paulo P. Freitas, Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction sensing devices with soft pinned sensing layer and low aspect ratio, IEEE Transactions on  Magnetics, 2014, 50, 4410508.

(5) Francis Leonard Deepak, Jose Rivas, Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Understanding the structure of nanocatalysts with High Resolution Scanning/ Transmission Electron Microscopy, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 2014, 55, 012005 (Review)

2013

(1) Raul Perez-Hernandez, Claudia E. Gutierrez-Wing, Gilberto Mondragon-Galicia, Albina Gutierrez-Marti­nez, Francis Leonard Deepak, Demetrio Mendoza-Anaya, Ag nanowires as precursors to synthesize novel Ag-CeO2 nanotubes for H2 production by methanol reforming, Cat. Today, 2013, 212, 225-231 (Special Issue: Selected Contributions of the Fourth International Symposium on New Catalytic Materials (NCM-4)).

(2) M.F. Melendrez, K. Hanks, Francis Leonard-Deepak, F. Solis-Pomar, E. Martinez Guerra, E. Perez-Tijerina and M. Jose-Yacaman, A novel and high yield synthesis of CdSe nanowires, J. Mat. Sci. 2013, 48, 4983-4988.

(3) Ana Silva, Diana C. Leitao, Zhiwei. Huo, Rita J. Macedo, Ricardo Ferreira, Elvira Paz, Francis Leonard Deepak, Susana Cardoso, and Paulo P. Freitas, Switching field variation in MgO magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars: experimental results and micromagnetic simulations, IEEE Trans. Magn. 2013, 49 (7), 4405-4408.

(4) Antonio Lopes, Susana Cardoso,  Ricardo Ferreira, Elvira Paz, Francis Leonard Deepak, Jaime Sanchez, Diego Ramirez, Sergio I. Ravelo and Paulo P. Freitas, MgO Magnetic Tunnel Junction Electrical Current Sensor with Integrated Ru Thermal Sensor, IEEE Trans. Magn. 2013, 49 (7), 3866-3869.

(5) Miguel Jose-Yacaman, Arturo Ponce-Pedraza, Sergio Meijia-Rosales and Francis Leonard Deepak, Advanced Methods of Electron Microscopy in Catalysis Research, Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics (Academic Press) Editor: Peter Hawkes (2013) (Book Chapter).

PUBLICATIONS

2017

Nitin M. Batra E. A. Anumol, Jasmin Smajic Andrey Enyashin Francis Leonard Deepak N; Costa, Pedro M F J

Morphological phase diagram of a metal halide encapsulated in carbon nanotubes Journal Article

Submitted, 2017.

BibTeX

Yogita Sonia E.A. Anumol, Chandrani Nayak Francis Leonard Deepak Vinod Phys C P J

A convenient route for Au@Ti-SiO2 nanocatalyst synthesis and its application for room temperature CO oxidation Journal Article

Chem. C , 129 (4946-4957), 2017.

BibTeX

Sourik Mondal Thattarathody Rajesh, Basab Dhar Markus Snellman Junjie Li Francis Leonard Deepak Nandini Devi B R

Understanding alloy structure and composition in sinter-resistant AgPd@SiO2 encapsulated catalysts and their effect on catalytic properties Journal Article

Submitted , 2017.

BibTeX

Cristina Gellini Francis Leonard Deepak, Maurizio Muniz Miranda Stefano Caporali Francesco Muniz-Miranda Alfonso Pedone Claudia Innocenti ; Claudio Sangregorio, Phys J

Magneto-Plasmonic Colloidal Nanoparticles Obtained by Laser Ablation of Nickel and Silver Targets in Water Journal Article

Chem. C, (121), pp. 3597−3606, 2017.

BibTeX

Junjie Li Zhongchang Wang, Francis Leonard Deepak

In-situ Atomic-scale Observation of Droplets Coalescence Driven Nucleation and Growth at Liquid/Solid Interface Journal Article

Submitted, 2017.

BibTeX

2016

E. A. Anumol A. N. Enyashin, Batra Costa N M P M F J; Deepak, Francis Leonard

Structural and chemical analysis of gadolinium halides encapsulated within WS2 nanotubes Journal Article

Nanoscale, (8), pp. 12170-12181, 2016.

BibTeX

Deepak, Francis Leonard; Enyashin, A N

Capillary Imbibition of Gadolinium Halides into WS2 Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics View Journal Article

Isr. J. Chem., 2016.

Links | BibTeX

Junjie Li Qiang Li, Zhongchang Wang ; Deepak, Francis Leonard

Real-Time Dynamical Observation of Lattice Induced Nucleation and Growth in Interfacial Solid-Solid Phase Transitions Journal Article

Cryst. Growth Des., Just Accepted Manuscript, 2016.

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J. Rodrigo Magana Yury V. Kolen’ko, Francis Leonard Deepak Conxita Solans Rekha Goswami Shrestha Jonathan Hill Katsuhiko Ariga Lok Kumar Shrestha P; Rodriguez-Abreu, Carlos

From Chromonic Self-Assembly to Hollow Carbon Nanofibers for Efficient Materials in Supercapacitor and Vapor Sensing Applications Journal Article

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2016.

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2015

Francis Leonard Deepak Manuel Bañobre-López, Enrique Carbó-Argibay Fátima Cerqueira Yolanda Piñeiro-Redondo JoséRivas Corey Thompson Saeed Kamali Carlos Rodríguez-Abreu Kirill Kovnir M M; Kolenko, Yury V

A Systematic Study of the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn‑, Co‑, and Ni-Doped Colloidal Magnetite Nanoparticles Journal Article

J. Phys. Chem C, (119), pp. 11947-11957, 2015.

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David Buceta Concha Tojo, Miomir Vukmirovic Francis Leonard Deepak Arturo Lopez-Quintela M

Controlling Bimetallic Nanostructures by the Microemulsion Method with Subnanometer Resolution Using a Prediction Model Journal Article

Langmuir, (31), pp. 7435-7439, 2015.

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Eunice Cunha M. Fernanda Proença, Florinda Costa António Fernandes Marta Ferro Paulo Lopes Mariam Debs Manuel Melle-Franco Francis Leonard Deepak Maria Paiva J A C E C C

Self-assembled functionalized graphene nanoribbons from carbon nanotubes Journal Article

ChemistryOpen, (4), pp. 115 – 119, 2015.

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Maryam Salimian Maxim Ivanov, Francis Leonard Deepak Dmitri Petrovykh Igor Bdikin Marta Ferro Andre Kholkin Elby Titus ; Goncalves, Gil

Synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide /spiky nickel nanocomposites for nanoelectronic applications Journal Article

J. Mater. Chem. C, (3), pp. 11516 – 11523, 2015.

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R. Pilot A. Zoppi, Trigari Deepak Giorgettib S F L E; Bozioa, R

Wavelength dispersion of the local field intensity in silver–gold nanocages Journal Article

Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys., (17), pp. 7355, 2015.

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Nitin M Batra Shashikant P Patole, Ahmed Abdelkader Dalaver Anjum Francis Deepak H L; Costa, Pedro M F J

Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices Journal Article

Nanotechnology, (26), pp. 445301, 2015.

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J. D. Costa S. Serrano-Guisan, Borme Deepak Tarequzzaman Paz J.Ventura Ferreira J F L M E R; Freitas, P P

Impact of MgO thickness on the performance of Spin Transfer Torque Nano-Oscillators​ Journal Article

IEEE Trans. Magn, (52), pp. 1401604, 2015.

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2014

Francis Leonard Deepak Jose Rivas, Miguel Jose-Yacaman

Understanding the structure of nanocatalysts with High Resolution Scanning/ Transmission Electron Microscopy Journal Article

IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng, (55), pp. 012005 , 2014.

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Stephanie Vial Dmytro Nykypanchuk, Francis Leonard Deepak Marta Prado ; Gan, Oleg

Plasmonic response of DNA-Assembled Gold Nanorods (AuNRs) Journal Article

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, (433), pp. 34-42, 2014.

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Yury V. Kolen’ko Manuel Bañobre-López, Carlos Rodríguez-Abreu Enrique Carbó-Argibay Francis Leonard Deepak Dmitri Petrovykh Fátima Cerqueira Saeed Kamali Kirill Kovnir Dmitry Shtansky Oleg Lebedev Y M V I; Rivas, Jose

High-Temperature Magnetism as a Probe for Structural and Compositional Uniformity in Ligand-Capped Magnetite Nanoparticles Journal Article

J. Phys. Chem. C , (118), pp. 28322−28329, 2014.

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Ana V. Silva Diana C. Leitao, Ricardo Ferreira Elvira Paz Francis Leonard Deepak Susana Cardoso ; Freitas, Paulo P

Linear nanometric tunnel junction sensors with exchange pinned sensing layer Journal Article

Journal of Applied Physics, (115), pp. 17E526, 2014.

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Diana C. Leitao Elvira Paz, Ana Silva Anastasiia Moskaltsova Simon Knudde Francis Deepak Ricardo Ferreira Susana Cardoso V L; Freitas, Paulo P

Nanoscale Magnetic Tunnel Junction sensing devices with soft pinned sensing layer and low aspect ratio Journal Article

IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 50 , pp. 4410508, 2014.

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